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“Virtuous Sin” Paramount. David Abel
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“Remote Control” , M-G-M. Merritt Cerstad
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24 mm. Cooke F2 40 mm. (1%") Cooke F2 *75 mm. (3") Cooke F2
28 mm. Cooke F2 *47 mm. Cooke F2 n „
32 mm. Cooke F2 50 mm. (2") Cooke F2 4/4 eooke
35 mm. (l 3 /g") Cooke F2 *58 mm. ( 2 V 4 ") Cooke F2 *100 mm. Cooke F2
*Fully covering 65 and 70 mm. wide film.
For full details and prices covering both unmounted and mounted Speed-Panchro Lenses write to
BELL & HOWELL
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for both orthochromatic and panchromatic film
i than 8000
Since the advent of sou nd more
lighting units have been manu
Mole-Richardson and are renderi
sistent service to the Industry.
There is something rather convinci
that fact , as to performance, c
and dependability of Mole-Ri*
products. There is also the ama
that more Mole-Richardson "Ink
been manufactured and put in
all other types of incandescents
ing else is necessary to reveal tl
and consistency of M. R. produ
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Veuillez faire mention de I’American Cinematographer en ecrivant aux announceurs.
. AMERICAN ■
A Technical and Educational Publication, Espousing Progress and Art in Motion Picture Photography
President, A. S. C.
Editor-in-Chief and General Manager, A. S. C.
SUITE 1222 GUARANTY BUILDING, HOLLYWOOD. CALIFORNIA
BOARD OF EDITORS: William Stull, Herford Tynes Cowling and Ned Van Buren
Technical Editor, A. S. C.
TEN YEARS OF PROGRESS, by Hal Mohr, A. S. C 9
COLOR CORRECTION IN THE “COOKE.” “SPEED PANCHRO”
AND “PANCHRO” LENSES, by J. A. DUBRAY, A. S. C 10
THE MEASUREMENT OF DENSITY IN VARIABLE DENSITY
SOUND FILM, by Clifton Tuttle and J. W. McFarlane 14
S. M. P. E. OFFERS FILM RATIO 16
SCREEN DEFINITION, by Dr. L. M. Dieterich.. 17
HAL HALL SAYS 18
A LETTER FROM HOLLYWOOD, by Joe Doakes 20
MAKING “WHOOPEE” WITH INKIES, by Fay Lawrence 33
AMATEUR MOVIE MAKING, by Wm. Stull, A. S. C 34
PROFESSIONAL AMATEURS, by Wm. Stull, A. S. C 36
CINE-KODAK COES ON ALASKA LOCATION,
by J. W. Boyle, A. S. C 39
MAKING MULTICOLOR TWO MILES UP, by Wm. Stull, A. S. C 44
Georges Benoit, c-o Louis Verande, 12 rue d’Aguessau Paris, 8e
John Dored, Paramount News, Paramount Building, 1 Rue Meyerbeer, Paris IXe, France
Herford Tynes Cowling, Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New York, Eastern Representative
Harold Sintzenich, Eastman Kodak Company, Bombay, India
PUBLISHED MONTHLY by THE AMERICAN SOCIETY of CINEMATOGRAPHERS, INC , HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA
Established 1918. Advertising Rates on Application. Subscription: U. S., $3.00 a year; Canada, $3.50 a year; Foreign, $4.00 a year; single copies, 25c
Telephone GRanite 4274 Copyright, 1930, by the American Society of Cinematographers, Inc.
A scene from “Morocco,” a Paramount Picture.
. . . and now, even more faithful! for
44 Wi di es ** and ii Cotor"
The talking-si nging-Z/fing pictures have devel-
oped more exactions from light and photog-
raphy in the past year than pictures developed
in ten years before.
And “light men” find that National Pho-
tographic Carbons have advanced in step with
every development . . . the new areas of
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National Photographic Carbons for every
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light and shadow- — ability to serve the difficult
close-up or long-shot.
National Photographic Carbons — as reliable
as a shaft of sunlight — as sensitive as the play
of moonlight on the surf — Taithful friends of
“light men,” cinematographers, and stars.
NATIONAL CARBON COMPANY, Inc.
Carbon Sales Division: Cleveland, Ohio
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and Carbon Corporation
Branch Sales Offices: New York, N. Y. Pittsburgh, Pa.
Chicago, 111. Birmingham, Ala. San Francisco, Calif.
National Photographic Carbons
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formance and service superior to that of any
In the development of the motion
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being foremost in the lighting equipment field.
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Cinematographer, OLLIE Marsh, A. S. C. Make-up Artist, GEORGE WESTMORF.
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Dr. Tanar lecturing on the System
Full information on Dr. Tanar’s Unique Portable Sound-on-Film System which has
down Commercial Film Business, will be mailed free if you tear out the prescription *
been so successful in bad cases of run
at the bottom of the page and mail to,
TANAR CORPORATION, LIMITED
General Offices: 5357 Santa Monica Blvd., Laboratories 1110-1112 North Serrano Ave.,
HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA, U. S. A.
Telephone: HEmpstead 3939. Cables: TANARLICHT.
* To remove prescription easily,
fold on dotted line, press with
luke warm flat iron; bend for-
ward and backward several
times to weaken structure of
paper; then apply a thin coat
of Aftricannel (double strength )
which can be purchased at any
drug store handling Nitro-
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prescription can be easily de-
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Care Tanar Corp., Ltd.
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LOYALTY-- PROGRESS — ART—
s ^ ■
DISTINCTION BASED ON MERIT
THE MEN WHO MAKE MOTION PICTURES
VOL. I. NO. I LOS ANGELES. CALIFORNIA. NOVEMBER I. 1920 TEN CENTS A COPY
The man who works the camera must be athoroughly decent fel-
low or else he could not hold his position, as he has much to contend
with and much is laid upon his unhappy head which should be blamed
elsewhere — faulty direction, faulty chemicals, or faulty work in the
The importance of the cameraman is paramount. Without him
no good picture can be taken. He must be a many-sided individual to
continue in his position successfully. He must, first of all, be able to
take good pictures, apart from that, he must necessarily he a brave
man and ready to attempt anything asked of him. He must be clear-
headed, so that he can stand on the edge of a skyscraper, and lean over
the top of a precipice, for that matter. lie must perch himself in almost
incredible angles, and perhaps stand waist deep in the river or ocean.
He must stand steadily by his work when some wild beast comes men-
acingly close, when the other members of the party can run to shelter,
and all the while he must steadily crank, and see that his camera is ifot
injured by fire, animals or water, and it is a matter of record that very
valiant deeds arc performed by the cameramen, deeds that few actors
or directors care to brave.
The average cameraman is a fatalist and a stoic, and lie must htfve
the temper of a saint, for the best of directors are irritable at times,
and even cameramen are liable to mistakes, liable to start on a scene
without enough film in the box, liable at times to be out of focus, for
he has many, many things to think about, and he has to think quickly
and to be prepared for emergencies.
The modern cameraman is for the most part a silent individual; he
is more or less preoccupied with his work, and has not much time to mix
with the players. He has to prepare his camera and magazines in the
early morning, and when he returns from the day’s work he is occu-
pied with seeing results, so that if there are any retakes, the company
may be ready to remake the scones the following day. By the time
he is through with his work he is ready to go home and stay there, for
he needs all the rest and sleep he can get as a rule, as he knows he can-
not afford to allow such things as nerves to attach themselves to his
system. The cameraman leaves little things like that to the players
and the directors, and endeavors to go his own way serenely.
The man who works the camera must necessarily be a student,
otherwise he will fall into a rut, and then— oblivion. There is so much
excellent photography today, and so many new effects being thought
of. that a conscientious man is forever thinking of some new -and star-
tling effect or innovation — something new, of which he may be proud,
and yet he knows that his name is not likely to be mentioned when
something particularly new, even of his own creation, is shown on the
screen, lie is content that it is the child of his brain, and that his fel-
lows of the camera know of his feat.
The cameraman is slowly, surely, coming into his own as screen
developments attest his worth.
CINEMATOGRAPHERS IN THE FIELDS OF ACTION
News Notes of Current Events in the Studios Where the Films Are in
the Making — Mention of Recent Releases.
OUR BILLION DOLLAR FILM
Motion Picture Making Attracts
Notable People to Los Angeles
and Southern California — Im-
portant Developments in Evi-
dence in All Studios.
Los Angeles is steadily forging
ahead as the greatest of all motion
picture producing centers of the
world. Millions of dollars are be-
ing paid ont annually in salaries
and operating expenses by com-
panies located in this city, and
prominent writers familiar with
the subject, state that about 80
per cent of the motion pictures
made in America are made in Los
This means much to the cinema-
tographers — the men who make
the motion pictures. It means that
the reliable cameramen of execu-
tive and general business ability
who know how to correctly pho-
tograph motion pictures have a
bright and interesting future. But
they must work and establish
their own identity through orig-
inal photography while co-operat-
ing at all times with their direc-
There is the reason why the
members of the American Society
of Cinematographers are steadily
expanding with the growth and
prestige of the industry. These
alert, tireless, energetic men of
the camera believe in progress
along educational lines because
they realize their future is in the
making. As the motion picture in-
dustry grows in importance their
work is sure to win that substan-
tial recognition that, places them
on a par with the director. The
cinematographer is in « large
measure responsible for the per-
fect picture, and no matter what
ability the star may possess, nor
how well the director direct, un-
less liis cameraman knows his
business the picture proves » cost-
ly failure. The cinematographer
is largely responsible for the
achievements of the billion dollar
It is most pleasing to representa-
tive cinematographers to note the
feeling of recognition and appre-
ciation of their efforts to aid in
producing the highest quality pho-
tographic effects iu motion pic-
tures. The representative and in-
telligent directors and heads of
producing organizations, stars and
players, depend much upon the
cameramen. A fitting testimonial
to the ability of most of the cam-
eramen is shown on the screens of
pictures of note by the appearance
thereon following the name of the
director, of the name of the cam-
eraman photographing the pic-
ture. The recognition of the cine-
matographer evidences the great
mind. It shows the director who
is r»mud of his own achievements
who is willing to share honors with
his cameraman, and it is the men
of this class who create the most
notable successes in motion pic-
The season of 1920-1921 with
the members of the American So-
ciety of Cinematographers prom-
ises to be unusually active and in-
teresting, with several remarkable
productions in the making that
should establish new precedents
for the film industry.
Mr. Charles G. Rosher, cinema-
tographer for Mary Pickford, is
in the midst of production photo-
graphing modern Italian scenes
for Miss Pickford’s new six-reel
picture, “The Flame in the Dark,”
directed by Frances Marion.
Mr. Philip E. Rosen, who is di-
recting Metro productions, recent-
ly finished the picture “White
Ashes,” an all-star cast being fea-
tured The story is by Luther
Reed, written for the Metro. Mr.
Rosen is now directing May Alli-
son in that remarkable story en-
titled. “Arc Wives to Blame,” a
six-reel that promises unusually
Mr. King D. Gray, cinematogra-
pher with J Grub Alexander, fea-
turing Ben Wilson and Neva Ger-
ber in. “The Crimson Lash,” a
spectacular dramatic serial of
fifteen episodes, says this picture
will rank among the modern thril-
lers as a very exciting serial. . It
will be completed about December
Mr. Ernest S. Depew, who is
photographing “Slim” Summer-
ville and Bobby Dunn, under the
direction of Joe Bordeaux, in a big
Manning comedy production, says
the laugh lovers will receive full
benefits when they look upon this
film, now about ready for release.
Mr. Fred W. Jackman, who is
in the midst of a remarkable series
of comedy stunts for a big Mack
Sennett Comedy wherein Ben Tur-
pin and Charlie Murray are being
starred, describes a number of
camera effects more than usually
out of the ordinary, covering spe-
cial photography of all arts and
angles in this five-reel 1920 spell-
(Continued on page 2 )
IDEAL FOR PICTURES
Philip E. Rosen, president of the
American Society of Cinematogra-
phers, and a director of all-star
casts for the Metro organization,
an authority on matters of pho-
tography in motion pictures, who
has toured most of the interesting
sections since establishing his
home in Los Angeles about two
years ago, is pronounced in his
praise regarding the charming
beauty of this wonderland of
Southern California for moving
pictures. lie says:
“There is every evidence that
the charms and alluring nature-
settings of Los Angeles, San Ber-
nardino, Riverside, Redlands, the
mountains and foothill districts
tributary, and famed Catalina
Island, which are embodied in
moving pictures, are popular
throughout the world.
“Through the great variety of
scenery, plains, forests, golden
fruit orchards, mountains and
marine perspectives, this country
offers unusual advantages for the
settings of moving picture scenar-
ios, especially in the radiant days
of the almost continuous summer
months — and nearly all the year is
summer in the Southland.
“Alpine settings may be found
in the snow and declivities of Mt.
Wilson and Old Baldy, only a few
miles away; the great sweeping
beaches of the Santa Monica Bay,
Redondo and San Pedro, with Cat-
alina Island in the nearby dis-
tance, offer most fitting surround-
ings for the activities of ship-
wrecked sailors, pirates, fishing
scenes, shipping and seaside ro-
mances. Farm life, with the old
homesteads, and the mystery of
the foothills, cactus and sage
brush, all furnish the common and
uncommon needs of the scenarios.
“These great advantages have
led to a new industrialism in
Southern. California, moving pic-
ture studios and manufacturing
plants have been erected in many
places, and what the neighborhood
has to give to the pictures in per-
fect surroundings will be returned
in commercial profits ; the time
having come when even the still
life of natural beauties can be a
source of profit.
“Tbe value of pictures has been
enhanced, and while people all
over the world are being made ac-
quainted with the beauties of Los
Angelos and the attractive regions
surrounding, the pictures them-
selves are being improved a hun-
dred fold because of the superior
and real nature of tbe background.
Nature and the moving picture
form a splendid and educational
partnership as told by tbe cameras
of our cinematographers
Many substantial and represent-
ative improvements are- being
made by the film manufacturing
and producing interests in and
around Los Angeles giving evi-
dence of the growth and import-
ance of this great industry where-
in millions of dollars are invested.
Ten Te ars of T^ogress
by HAL MOHR, President, American Society of Cinematographers
S [J — 'EN YEARS ago this month a little, four-page, semi-monthly paper, devoted to
v 0 III the interests of Cinematographers and Cinematography, made its initial ap-
HI pearance in Hollywood. Nothing pretentious — just four pages nine by four-
teen inches — telling the latest developments in cinematography. This little
paper, whose front page is pictured opposite, was called “The American Cinematog-
rapher,” and was published by the American Society of Cinematographers, Inc. The
first issue appeared on November first. At the time there was no thought in the
minds of those who started it that this paper some day was to become the outstand-
ing magazine devoted to Cinematography, professional and amateur, and to prac-
tically all other technical matters pertaining to the making of pictures.
Gradually, the little paper grew until it was decided that it be changed into
a magazine. Its influence was being felt throughout the picture industry. Then it
became a monthly and took its place at the head of the magazines pertaining
to the cinematographic field. Its reputation spread to Germany, England, France
— and as interest in motion pictures spread, it followed until today it is read in
every state in the Union and in thirty-six foreign countries. From a four-page
paper it has grown into a fifty-four page magazine that is eagerly looked for by
thousands of readers all over the world. And — within the next few months it
will again expand in size and before another year is expected to contain close to
one hundred pages of instructive material each month.
As the picture business developed and changed, so has the magazine. When
sound came into existence this magazine was one of the first to give to its readers
the latest technical developments along these lines. As the 16 millimeter camera and
home projectors grew in favor and the home movie makers were seeking infor-
mation from those who, by experience in the professional field, could intelligently
help, this magazine introduced a department devoted to these amateurs which
has won popular favor and is steadily growing and making its influence felt.
Now the magazine is celebrating its tenth anniversary. And — it is doing it in
the same manner it has grown during the years — quietly and without splurge or
blazing trumpets. We are not asking our advertisers to spend money for additional
pages in which to congratulate us on our growth. It has been the loyal support of
these advertisers that has made possible our growth. In the early days when our
circulation was very small some of these advertisers who are still with us showed
the faith of pioneers by placing their advertising with us. We take this opportunity
of thanking them. Today we know we are giving tremendous value to our adver-
tisers, and we are happy because their faith was not misplaced.
Tremendous strides ahead are being planned for the coming year and we want
to assure every reader that no stone will be left unturned in an effort to make this
magazine remain at the head of the field of its kind. New departments are to be
created in the near future which will be announced from time to time. We will be
pleased to hear from any of our readers who care to make suggestions as to edi-
torial content or features which they feel may make the magazine of still greater
worth. As we start our eleventh year we again thank all of you who have grown
with us, and express the hope that both the magazine and you will enjoy as much
prosperity in the next ten years as in the past.
Col or Correction
n the "Cooke / 7 "Speed Panchro" and "Panchro" Lenses
by JOSEPH A. DUBRAY, A. S. C.
(NOTE: — -This article was suggested to the author by an
informal discussion between him and Mr. A. Warmisham,
Optical Director of Taylor-Taylor-Hobson, the makers of the
Color correction for cinematographic lenses has been, for
the last two or three years, the subject of continued discussion
in the cinematographic world.
The exigencies of talking pictures and the definite adoption
by the Motion Picture Industry of Panchromatic Films have
dictated to Mr. Warmisham the necessity of supplementing his
laboratory research with a thorough survey of the production
fields of Hollywood, New York and Europe.
His investigation resulted in the offering to the cine-
matographic world of the new series of F 2. “Speed Panchro”
and F 2.5 “Panchro” Cinematographic lenses, which have been
designed by H. W Lee of Taylor-Taylor-Hobson.
The author offers the following essay to the consideration
of the Cinematographers and Technicians of the screen in an
effort to generalize a clearer understanding of the factors
involved in the correction of the chromatic aberrations in
modern Cinematographic lenses of wide aperture. — The Author) .
N THE computation of photographic lenses, the optical de-
signer traces step by step the path of a selected group of
light rays through the system of lenses which he has, at
first, rather roughly selected as nearly answering the require-
ments necessary for the lens to be suitable for the special
purpose for which it is designed.
For Cinematographic Lenses, it may be stated that the
ultimate goal of the optician is to minimize the effects of the
various aberrations which are inherent with the physical
properties of glass and at the same time reach the maximum
possible luminosity or speed.
The analysis of the ray’s paths and their position in the
image area permit the optician to accurately determine the
remaining aberrations and therefore to modify the design of
the system so as to obtain the greatest possible “correction”
without altering the predetermined lens aperture.
The aberrations which are inherent with an optical system
the elements of which are bounded by spherical surfaces are:
SPHERICAL ABERRATION, COMA, ASTIGMATISM, DISTOR-
TION, CURVATURE OF FIELD, CHROMATIC ABERRATION
These are further complicated by secondary aberrations which
may be considered as subsequent errors of the same order as
The errors due to aberrations cannot be fully eliminated or,
to use the common expression, they cannot be fully “cor-
rected” and a photographic lens is, therefore, at its best but
The magnitude of the errors which remain in the finished
objective is decided upon by the designer according to the use
for which the lens is being created.
The optician is constantly confronting a long series of arduous
problems which are created by the fact that the means adopted
for correcting one error may produce errors of a different order
and, therefore, his ingenuity, coupled with his knowledge of
the conditions under which the lens is to be used are the
determining factors in regard to the suitability of the finished
FIG. I FIG. 2
Relation between wave lengths and focusing distances for a FIG. 2. Relation between wave lengths and focusing distances for a
refracting telescope, designed for photographic use. refracting telescope designed for visual observation.
FIG. 3. The D G curve of the secondary spectrum in lenses in use in
It is to be especially noted that the types of lenses which are
best adapted to reduce the Chromatic aberration to a mini-
mum, are the worst offenders in respect of curvature of field
and astigmatism corrections, and it is literally true that the
aperture and the quality of the color correction are both
limited by the necessity of producing a flat field.
Since this article is intended to briefly discuss the correction
of the chromatic aberrations for lenses as developed for cine-
matographic work, we shall disregard all other aberrations and
construe that the optical system under consideration is exempt
of all errors but those introduced through the impossibility for
modern high speed photographic lenses to focus accurately in
the same plane all the various color images.
This deficiency is, as stated above, entirely independent from
conception of design or workmanship and is inherent with the
physical properties of glass.
The index of refraction of every single piece of glass, varies
for all the lights of different color and thus, if a single piece
of glass is ground and polished in the shape of converging lens,
its power of convergence varies for the different colored rays.
Since the convergence of the blue rays is greater than that of
the red rays, the single lens will have a shorter focal length
for the former than for the latter.
If the differences between the refractions for the various
colored rays, which phenomenon is called “dispersion,” were
proportional to the refraction for all glasses, there would be
no remedy for chromatic aberration.
However, the ratio of refraction to dispersion varies for
glasses of different composition and density and if two glasses
are chosen, one having a high refraction for low dispersion and
the other a low refraction for the same dispersion and from
them two lenses are made, one positive or convergent and the
other negative or divergent which combined form a positive
whole, it is quite evident that such combination can be
designed in which the chromatic errors of one lens are
neutralized by the similar but opposite errors of the other
resulting in a combination reasonably free from chromatic
Such lenses are called ACHROMATIC.
It must be borne in mind, however, that “dispersion” is
not a finite entity, which can be fully expressed with numerical
mathematical exactness and since it only expresses an infinite
number of differences between the refractions for the various
colored rays it is confined to express a mean between them,
or between two chosen colors.
Dispersion for a certain glass is usually determined by sub-
tracting the refracting index of the colored light corresponding
to the “F” line (Blue-Green) of the spectrum from that of the
“C” (Red line) the wave lengths of which are respectively
486.15 and 656.30 micro-millimeters.
When this mean dispersion is considered in the calculation
of achromatic lenses, only these two colors will be accurately
brought to the same focus while the others will fail to do so
and cause therefore the existence of a residual aberration.
This phenomenon is known by opticians as the “Secondary
Some reduction of the secondary spectrum effect is indeed
obtained by bringing to the same focus three instead of two
colored light rays, but this entails an increase in the number
of glass surfaces and a reduction in the speed of the lens which
is appropriate for some special work such as the trichrome
reproduction of paintings and colored objects but which would
be in opposition with the speed requisite of objectives for
The only optical instrument in which opticians have suc-
ceeded in correcting the secondary spectrum is the “apochro-
matic” microscope objective and for this the correction has
been made by substituting the crown glass which would
ordinarily be used by a cristallyne mineral, Fluorite.
This practice cannot, however, be extended to photographic
objectives simply because Fluorite cannot be obtained in suf-
ficiently large pieces of optical clear quality. For example,
to make a 3" lens working at a maximum aperture of F 2.,
(Continued on Page 22)
FIG. 4. Secondary spectrum curve illustrating the nearest possible
compromise for coincident visual and photographic foci.
H ARRY PERRY, A. S. C., has just returned from Hawaii, where he photographed some beautiful
subjects in Multicolor. Some idea of the scenic beauty of his pictures may be obtained from
the photographs on this and the opposite page. Above is the Grand Canyon of Hawaii, located on
the island of Kanaai. This was admirable in Multicolor.
H ERE is a view from the island of Kanai. You can wade out a half mile in this surf. Mr. Perry
says it was an admirable subject for photographing in natural colors.
T HIS is the crater of Haleakala, “House of the Sun,” on the island of Maui. Mr. Perry and his
company had to take camera equipment on pack mules to get this. “But it was well worth it,”
says Mr. Perry.
H OLD everything! Here is Mr. Perry, himself, snapped in a moment of fun, as he was doing a
little rehearsing with a few good looking hula dancers. Who says these cinematographers’ lives
are all hard work!
The Measurement of Density in Variable
Density Sound Film
Communication No. 435 from the Kodak Research Laboratories. (Read before
the Society of Motion Picture Engineers at Washington)
Reprinted from The Journal of the S. M. P. E.
by CLIFTON TUTTLE and J. W. McFARLANE
T HE DEPENDENCE of the optical density of developed
photographic materials upon the method of its measure-
ment was first demonstrated by Callier. 1 He discussed the
effect of light scattering by the photographic image and pre-
sented data which seemed to justify the empirical relation:
D|| = QD -||-
where D|| (specular density) is the value obtained with the
developed image in a specular beam, D-||- (diffuse density) the
value obtained with diffuse illumination, and Q a constant
factor greater than unity.
This form of relation holds with practical accuracy for many
materials though it has since been shown by Bloch and Ren-
wick 2 and by one of us 3 that an exponential relation fits the
facts better over an extended density range for the data of
Callier and for other data on a variety of materials. A theoretical
relation involving optical constants of the grain clumps pro-
posed by Silberstein and one of us, 4 finds excellent experimental
justification, and if enough information regarding the optical
characteristics of the developed image was available this rela-
tion could be applied to the solution of any practical problem.
Density Measurements in Relation to Sound Pictures
In the theory of sound reproduction with the variable den-
sity method as outlined by MacKenzie, 5 Jones and Sandvik, 8
and others 7 the measurement of sound track density plays an
important part, for it is from these measurements that the
values of negative gamma, positive gamma, and the resultant
or over-all gamma are determined.
The value of density which is effective in the reproduction
of the sound track is neither “diffuse” nor “specular” in the
sense that these two terms have been used in the literature.
So far as we are aware, there are no published data correlating
“sound-reproducer” density with either of the aforementioned
values. It may be of interest, therefore, to consider briefly
the matter of density measurement in its relation to sound
Angular Distribution of Intensity from Positive Film
Illuminated by Parallel Light
Because of the fact that the photographic image is a non-
homogeneous material formed by clumps of metallic silver
grains embedded in a matrix of gelatin, the light which is
transmitted by the image is scattered by reflection and dif-
fraction. Fig. 1 shows distribution curves for images developed
on motion picture positive film. To obtain these curves, the
sample was illuminated by approximately parallel light and
the intensity distribution was read with a photometer mounted
on a spectrometer arm so that it could be rotated about an
axis passing through the image. The normally transmitted
intensity is so much greater than the intensity a few degrees
away from the normal that it is practical to show only a section
of these curves in the graph.
At first glance, distribution curves, such as are illustrated
in Fig. 1, may be misleading. The relative intensities even at
angles close to the normal are so small compared to the in-
tensity of the specularly transmitted beam that one might feel
justified in neglecting their effect. These curves are only cross
section views of the distribution, and to get an accurate con-
ception of the total amount of light scattered away from the
normal, the intensity values given by the ordinates in Fig. 1
must be multiplied by an area factor which varies with the
sine of the angle from the normal.
The following relation may be used to determine the total
transmission from the angular distribution curves:
7"Total = 2tt S Jd sin 0 A0
ANCLES IN DECREES
FIC. 1. Distribution of light scattered by positive film of different
densities (expressed as per cent of normally incident light.)
FIC. 2. Diagrammatic representation of light scattering by
in which 'J'O is the average value of the ordinate over the in-
crement, A0. The same relation may, of course, be used to
determine the effective value of transmission between limits
fixed by the solid angle subtended at the measured sample by
the window of the receiving element.
The significance of light scattering by the photographic
deposit in the problem of density measurement may be made
clear by reference to Fig. 2.
In this figure, parallel light, represented by arrows at the
left, is incident upon the photographic density, A. The trans-
mitted light is indicated vectorially by the arrows at the right
of the figure. If a printing material is placed in contact with
the illuminated sample, all of the transmitted light, regardless
of direction, 8 is effective in exposing the positive material. A
measurement of density, to be significant for contact printing,
must therefore be based upon the total transmission, that is,
it must include an angle of 90 degrees each way from the
normal in Fig. 2. This value, which is spoken of as “diffuse
density,” is the value given by most of the commonly used
If the photographic deposit, A, is included in an optical
system and is imaged by a lens (B, Fig. 2) which subtends
a relatively small solid angle at A, most of the scattered light
is lost and should not be included in a measurement of the
transmission (or density) if a projection print is to be made
of the image. Under these circumstances the specular value
of density (Djj) is nearer to the correct value.
In sound reproduction, with the sample illuminated by light
from an optical system and with the transmitted intensity
collected by the window of a photo-cell (represented diagram-
matically by C in Fig. 2) a value intermediate between the
diffuse and specular densities is effective.
Density Measurement Under Practical Conditions
Several factors may influence the value of density as meas-
ured by the photo-cell in the reproduction system. The degree
of collimation of the incident beam of light, the uniformity
of the sensitive surface of the photo-cell, the quality of the
incident radiation, the spectral sensitivity of the photo-cell, and
probably numerous other considerations may have some
Under conditions which exist in practice, we believe these
factors to be of small importance in comparison to the effect
of altering the angle of the cone of transmitted light which
* The integrating densitometer, 3 in which the sample to be measured
is placed over the window of an integrating sphere, and the most
common type of densitometer, in which the sample is placed in contact
with a diffusing opal glass, both give values of diffuse density in
agreement with each other.
FIC. 4 Density of positive film image as measured by a photo-cell
whose window subtends various solid angles at the measured sample.
(Log 10 of one-half of the solid angle is plotted.)
is collected by the photo-cell. It is nevertheless desirable to
state as specifically as possible the conditions under which we
have made our measurements.
Fig. 3 illustrates the optical system which was used to illu-
minate the sample with a slit image. This system was built
up from standard parts and it duplicates the system which
is actually used in many theatre installations. Most of the im-
portant dimensions are given in the figure. Both lenses, B and
D, are of 10.5 mm. diameter and the solid angle subtended
by the objective lens at the density, E, is 31 degrees.
A potassium photo-cell with a window 25 mm. in diameter
was placed at various distances from the measured sample,
thus altering the solid angle of the cone of light which was
collected. Photo-current was measured with a Leeds and
Northrup H. S. galvanometer calibrated with the cell over the
intensity range actually employed.
A series of densities developed on Eastman positive film in
M. P. 1 6 to a diffuse gamma of 2.0 was measured.
A typical set of data is shown graphically in Fig. 4 in which
the measured values of density are plotted against log™ of the
half angle subtended by the window of the photo-cell at the
sample. The lowest values of density, D were obtained
with the Capstaff-Purdy densitometer and are shown plotted
at the abscissa = log™ 90° = 1 .95.
In most of the reproducers used in theatres, the angle sub-
tended by the photo-cell window at the film is about 35°
(log™ half angle — 1.54). The comparison between the value
of diffuse density and the density actually measured by the
photo-cell in the projector is given in Table I. For the lower
densities the factorial difference between the two values is
greater, which fact checks the previously reported data on
positive film. 3 For practical purposes perhaps the Callier 1 type
D r = 1 .3D -||-
in which D r is the effective reproducer density, will hold with
Relation between Difuse Density and Reproducer Density for Positive Film
(Continued on Page 32)
S. M. P. E. Offers Film Ratio
Suggests Ratio of 1 .8 to 1
W IDE FILM, the bugbear of producers for some time
past, was presented to the Fall meeting of the Society
of Motion Picture Engineers, held in New York,
October 20th to 23rd, and the Society, through its committee
on standards and nomenclature, added another problem to the
sponsors of 70, 65 and other width films by suggesting a width
somewhere between 35 mm. and 70 mm.
A. C. Hardy reported for the committee and stated that it
had become increasingly evident to the committee during its
deliberations that the adoption of release prints with a width
in the neighborhood of 65 to 70 millimeters would be
economically impracticable for a large proportion of theatres
and that it seemed desirable to give consideration to a film
size intermediate between these dimensions and the present
35 millimeters standard. “We are working on a layout that
will permit the use of the 1 .8 to 1 ratio,” said Hardy, “and
that will provide for a wider sound track and more suitable
margins. We are attempting to assign dimensions to this film
that will permit the most economic use of existing 35 milli-
meter equipment. While the specification of the release print
dimensions is the problem of most importance this committee
has under consideration a negative of such proportions that
it may be printed by optical reduction on the new intermediate
film size or by contact on a larger film for the de luxe houses.
An agreement on the above plan has been reached so recently
that there has been insufficient time to complete the final
details for presentation to the Society.”
It was pointed out that the wide film would have many
obvious advantages over the present standard; such as a sound
track of more satisfactory width; possibility of greater variety
of composition and more action without exceeding a practical
limit of magnification. It was also declared that the com-
mittee had been guided not alone by engineering principles,
but by consideration of the costs to the industry of a new
The meeting was one of the most successful yet held by
this organization, with more than 300 members registered at
the meeting. No effort had been spared by the committee in
charge of the arrangements, and the meeting was a history-
making event for the society.
An outstanding feature of the meeting was the reelection
to the office of President of the society of J. I. Crabtree of
the Eastman Kodak Company. Mr. Crabtree’s year of office
has been a decidedly successful one. Other officers named are:
vice-president, W. C. Hubbard; secretary, j. H. Kurlander;
treasurer, Herford T. Cowling, A. S. C., of the Eastman Kodak
Company and a member of the Board of Editors of the American
Among the other highlights of the meeting were the reports
of the color and studio lighting committees and a wealth of
interesting and highly instructive papers dealing with prac-
tically every phase of the picture industry. The lighting com-
mittee revealed that in studios where incandescent lighting has
been largely used there has been a tendency during the past
six months to increase the number of high intensity spots and
sun arcs for floodlighting purposes. This has been made
possible, the committee explains, by the efficient silencing
devices which have been installed on direct current generating
equipment and the arc lamps in the studios. The committee
also stated that there has been considerable work done lately
on the problem of utilizing photometric measuring devices in
the studios, but little progress has been made in the practical
application of these instruments.
The color committee explained that the Photocolor system,
which had not been outlined in detail before to the society,
uses a camera which photographs a pair of images in conjunc-
tion with special taking filters and an optical system employ-
ing the split beam method of photographing. The negative
is printed upon a specially designed optical printer which prints
the two respective images in registration upon duplitized posi-
tive stock. The print is next transferred to the green process-
ing room and receives the application of the blue-green compli-
mentary dye on the side containing the image from the red
sensation negative. The print then receives the orange-red dye
upon the image from the green sensation negative.
A new color process, the committee points out, is being
introduced from Germany. It is known as “The New Color
Process.” This is claimed to be usable either for motion or
still pictures. Mention was also made of the Herault Color
Process, in which a three-color sector wheel is rotated in front
of the camera and the contact print negative is dye tinted so
that each successive group of frames is tinted one of the
primary colors. The three-color positive is then projected
with a continuous projector. The method is said to suppress
the chromatic flicker when projected at 24 frames per second;
only spherical lenses are used in this projector.
The Horst System of Color Photography is described as tak-
ing three pictures simultaneously with three-color filters, using
a prism system in the camera. In the positive, each frame
carries three images, each corresponding to one of the color
separation images of the negatives. This method is being
sponsored in Great Britain by Universal Productions, Ltd.
Another system mentioned by the committee is the Magna-
This system gives wide film sound and color. It is an
additive method with many of the old features utilized, but
designed to rid itself of color bombardment and color fringing.
This is accomplished by having the film pass through the
normal projector at the standard speed of 90 feet a minute
with, however, an intermittent movement, which operates with
an 8 sided cam instead of the usual 4 sided cam. This gives
48 pictures a second of half the usual height, instead of 24
full frame pictures a second as is customary. At this speed
of 48 changes a second, there is little or no color bombard-
The negatives are preferably made by the film pack system.
The only change in the camera is that it is fitted with a half
size aperture gate and the normal speed of 24 pictures a
second insures good exposures. Other methods of making the
negatives may be used.
For the positives, the negatives which have been exposed as
above described, are printed in sequence giving on projection
a series of 48 pictures a second, with the sound at 90 feet a
minute giving perfect reproduction. No fringing is discernible
as the negatives have been made in pairs. In addition to this
the film is tinted with alternate spaces of red and blue-green,
so that after leaving the laboratory the films cannot be joined
or run out of color.
No public demonstrations have been given although private
exhibitions have brought forth econiums. As the process has
no toning, using black and white pictures and makes use of
process in which the problems are familiar and well worked-
out, the film can be introduced at low cost.
The above description covers much that has been done but,
as many changes are being made, no demonstration will be
given until the Spring meeting of the Society.
(Continued on Page 50)
by DR. L. M. DIETERICH
T HE OBJECT of this article is to acquaint the broad ranks
of cameramen with facts, based upon the knowledge and
experience of individual cinematographers and to combine
this information with the results of optical and psychological
All of these de-facto results of experience and research,
have a distinct influence upon screen definition.
The author hopes that a study of this article by the aspir-
ing cameraman may be of some assistance to him in his strug-
gles on the road to success; he found that a number of cine-
matographers excel in the practical use and application of one
or more of the practices herein analyzed, but that the knowl-
edge of all of them is exceptional, whereas it should be uni-
versal for the best of the profession.
For the purpose of this study we must assume that we strive
to impart to the screen picture the same definition as that
which we see when we look at reality.
This assumption forces us immediately to a comparison be-
tween the optical characteristics of eye and lens, as far as
definition results are concerned.
Definition as far as perceptible by the human eye when
looking either at reality or a (screen) photograph, depends
primarily upon the contrast between the visual elements or
parts of the field or picture, on the white to black scale, in-
cluding all visual parts of the color (spectrum) scale. This
contrast perception is enhanced by the sharpness of the separa-
tion between such contrasting elements.
In the human eye the sharpness of the image depends, firstly,
upon the optical exactness of the lens action, which has never
been definitely determined, and, secondly, upon the resolving
power of the retina which, however, has been determined.
The actual sensory perception is governed by this resolving
power, and can be most clearly expressed as follows:
At five inches distance, which is the shortest focus the nor-
mal human eye is capable of, the eye can visually separate two
points one thousandth of an inch apart.
At a distance of 100 feet, therefore, the eye cannot see two
points, however “contrasty” they may be to their background,
which are closer together than about one-fourth inch, as two
points, but as one point. In other words, details smaller than
one-quarter inch cannot be seen as such at 100 feet distance.
The human eye, therefore, sees less and less actually ex-
isting details the farther the object is from the eye.
This maximum sharpness, however, is only produced upon
a very small central part of the retina of about 8.5 mm. diam-
eter, which is called the fovea (pit), Diagram 1, where the
so-called “cones” or light sensitive nerve elements are directly
exposed to the light impact and very much closer together
than in other parts of the retina. Outside of this area the
“cones” are covered with a fibrous or granular layer, which
more or less absorbs the light and impairs the sharp focus.
This arrangement, existing only in man (and the higher forms
of apes), enables him to mentally concentrate on an object.
The area of sharp sight being so small, produces the invol-
untary scanning of an object (however small) by that minute
pencil of sharp perception at an immeasurable speed, when we
want to see more than a mere point of an object.
This necessary scanning has a peculiar influence upon the
finally registered definition of the object or picture.
When our “sharp pencil” hits a point in the field, the eye
produces, by instantaneous accommodation, a sharp retinal im-
pression of this point. At the same instant, however, unsharp
images of adjacent points are impressed upon the retina, such
unsharpness increasing with the distance of such adjacent
points, from the focus point by reason of out-of-focus condi-
tions and reduced light transmission.
As it takes special training to be able to concentrate our
sight and attention to a single “point” only, we always per-
ceive in every-day use of our sight, by the well-known per-
sistence of vision, a composite picture of sharp and unsharp
impressions, producing that softness of a picture which has
been and is the ideal definition the cameraman strives for,
but which he has so far been able to only approach but not
The reasons why he cannot reproduce natural vision in this
respect are manifold.
Let us first consider some of the methods and means em-
ployed in modern photography which bear directly upon defi-
To be able to photograph requires primarily a photographic
lens. The performances of the first photographic lenses were
so poor, as far as balanced definition is concerned, that an
increase of lens definition has been consistently striven for, has
always been, and is today the ever receding goal of the lens
designer, computer and manufacturer.
And yet definition characteristics have today reached a state
of perfection which in many respects is unnecessarily over
refined. This may sound ridiculous but is nevertheless a fact.
Lens corrections, especially inside the central zones, have
reached such a state of perfection that the optical image, pro-
(Continued on Page 24)
T HIS WRITER, who happens to be the editor of the
Cinematographic Annual, which came off the press three
months after it was promised, is simply overcome by the many
wonderful things that his contemporaries have had to say about
the Annual. And, if you will pardon the personal pronoun,
I wish to take this opportunity to thank you editors of Camera,
Camera Craft, Filmo Topics, Film Daily, Variety, Film Spec-
tator and all the others for your worlds of praise. Honestly,
we did try to produce a book that would be worthwhile and
a credit to the Society which sponsored its publication, and
if we have succeeded we feel that all is well, after all.
My excellent board of editors and I feared that perhaps
we would be severely criticised. You know that adverse criti-
cism is just about the easiest thing there is. We realized that
perhaps we had overlooked many features that readers might
want. And now to see the nice things that have been said
about the book is really and truly most gratifying, and we do
thank you, and hope all those who obtain the Annual will
be pleased and receive much benefit therefrom. Next year
we promise a better one — and it will be out on time.
A FTER a veritable orgy of color, in which producers and
art directors apparently lost all sense of balance or
good judgment, color has “taken one on the chin,’’ as they
say in the language of the prize ring. This is too bad, for
color, judiciously used, is a real asset to a picture which nat-
urally calls for color.
True to tradition, the producers have turned away from
color in just as apparently silly way as they turned to it at
the start of the great color period that has just ended. But
color will not die out. Color is here to stay, despite the fact
that the public has been fed up on a lot of very bad color,
color which was splashed in just for the sake of making the
picture colorful. Three intelligent papers were read on color
at the recent S. M. P. E. meeting in New York, and a few
producers are wisely figuring out that, if intelligently used,
color will enhance a picture that calls for it. Take, for in-
stance, the Eddie Cantor picture, “Whoopee.” There is an
example of what can be done with color if it is used wisely
and the proper care taken in the making of the prints. Von
Stroheim returned from abroad the other day, and had scarcely
set foot on shore when he declared that color is needed in the
ideal picture. His objection to color in the past has been that
it has been unnatural. If a real three-color process can be
developed and the producers can be influenced to use color
only where it is called for, the future of color should be bright.
Widies vs Pictures
T HE WRITER is not a big producer, or anything like that.
But — he sits back during these days of discussion of wide
film, color and the like and wonders why a few more of the
producers do not concentrate on the business of giving the
dear public some PICTURES. Maybe said writer is all wet,
as they say in the language of the street. But a few more
good pictures would surely be much more comfortable both
to the public and the box offices than so much discussion of
whether they are to be on 50, 56, 65 or 70 millimeter film.
We believe in advancement, of course. But while the scientific
geniuses are figuring out the wide film problem, why not have
a few good pictures on 35 millimeter film!
Waiting for the Sunrise
r-RANKLIN COURTNEY ELLIS, of the office of Public Infor-
|~ mation of the Eastman Kodak Company, deserves honorable
mention for uniqueness of ideas along publicity lines. He writes
ye Editor to the effect that Gene Lockhart, composer of “The
World is Waiting for the Sunrise,” has just bought himself
a Cine-Kodak, and opines that perhaps now said Mr. Lockhart
will be getting out of his downy cot in the morning and
waiting to make a picture of said sunrise in Kodacolor. Oh,
Mr. Ellis! But it got the Cine-Kodak and Eastman some
publicity, anyway! Incidentally, did you notice what Brown
did to Princeton the other week?
R OBERT E. SHERWOOD, who is nationally known for his ex-
cellent movie criticisms and his pointed and intelligent
remarks anent the picture business in general, recently gave
us an article in his Bell Syndicate daily column that is well
worth reprinting in any paper or magazine that deals with
things pertaining to pictures. No comment is necessary — his
article, excerpts from which we print below — speaks for itself:
“In the course of a post mortem on the late and generally
lamented international yacht races, a London newspaper re-
marked that ‘British seamanship was defeated by Yankee gad-
gets.’ This referred, of course, to the fact that the ‘Enterprise’
used various mechanical labor-saving devices for the speedy
raising and lowering of sails, whereas the ‘Shamrock’ relied
exclusively on old-fashioned elbow grease.
“Precisely the same complaint is heard whenever the sub-
ject of American movie domination comes up for discussion in
the European press (as it frequently does) . Hollywood’s posi-
tion of leadership in the celluloid world is invariably attributed
to the superiority of ‘Yankee gadgets’ — the sound recording
apparatus being the greatest gadget of all.
“There is plenty of truth in this. For this development of
the purely mechanical part of film production in Hollywood
has become one of the major miracles of history. If only some
of the other departments had kept pace with this development
. . . but there is no point in indulging in depressing and fruit-
“Some time ago, when the screen was silent, a distinguished
author returned from his first trip to Hollywood and announced
the discovery that the cameramen there were far, far ahead
of the directors, actors, scenario writers and executives in effi-
ciency, intelligence, and general desirability. He didn’t have
to go to Hollywood to make this discovery. He could have
attained it by visiting any movie theatre and looking at the
results of Hollywood’s labors.
“Now the cameraman co-operates with another kind of
technician — the sound man — and he, too, has gone far
ahead of the rest of the procession. If one-tenth of the
genius that he expends in the manipulation of his compli-
cated apparatus could be diverted and used in the prepara-
tion of stories . . . but again I’m wandering off into
“There has been much talk lately of the dreadful mechanical
Robot that is ruining Art in our modern civilization. Our finer
aesthetic sensibilities, we are told, are being mangled in the
ruthless cog-wheels of the Machine Age.
“Insofar as Hollywood is concerned, however, it is the
Robot, the Spirit of the Gadget, that most nearly approaches
that goal of perfection toward which all art strives.
“How often do we see pictures in which the technical qual-
ities — the photography, sound reproduction, mechanical effects
— are inferior to the flesh, the blood and the grey matter?
Almost never. For an excellent example of just what I mean,
have a look at ‘Hell’s Angels.’
“There is one thing seriously lacking in the Robot, and
that is pride. He should be equipped with it at once, so that
he will be able to stand on it and refuse to reproduce the
drivel that is fed to him by the creative minds of Hollywood.”
November, 1 930
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J1 T WT,
A Letter from Hollywood
The Only Town Where Men Eat Off Their Beards
by JOE DOAKES
Illustrated by Bill Tara
M R. JOHN DOE.
2945 Doe Street,
I promised to write you as soon as I reached Hollywood and
had got myself settled in a good job in one of the studios.
Well, I have been here four months, now, and am not settled
yet. Some how or other, you can’t get by the tough guys at
these studio gates. They don’t
recognize talent and brains
when it comes right up in front
of them, so I am still on the
outside, but am determined.
Now, as to Hollywood.
Well, I don’t know where to
start. It is a great town,
John. Big stars seem to figure
that the best outdoor sport is
trying to run down pedestrians
with lavender colored, high-
powered autos. And when
they miss you and you yell at
them they seem to take of-
fense. They are funny that
way. So far, they have all
missed me, but I am afraid
that they are getting the
range, and if they do, don’t
bother sending me any flow-
ers, for I won’t know they
have arrived. Anyhow,
understand that whoever hits
you out here sends you all the
flowers you need.
There is another funny
thing out here. It is a group
of men who eat off their
beards. I’m not fooling, John.
They sure do, and when they
don’t eat off them they just don’t eat, and that’s a fact. No,
I don’t mean that they lay their beards out on the table and
use them for table cloths. I mean that the beards furnish the
eats. When I first arrived here I thought I had landed in a
House of David Colony, honest, John. I walked down by
Warner Brothers Studio the second day I was here, and it
looked as though a half dozen of those David bearded ball teams
were getting ready for a convention. Lined up by the curb
were several dozen of the fun-
niest looking fellows. Long
beards, short beards, bushy
beards, French beards, Russian
beards, Spanish beards, Egyp-
tian beards — some looking as
though they had been all night
in the gutter; others looking
as though they had just come
from the cleaner.
I was curious about so
much hair on the face, for you
know we all used to shave on
our street back home, and if
a man didn’t shave he was
accused of being out the night
before breaking the prohibi-
tion act. Not so here, how-
ever, I found out. You see,
it is the only town in the
world where men eat off their
beards. And by that I mean
that these guys find they can’t
get by the gates on brains and
ability, so they let the whisk-
ers grow and when they get
enough to hide their identity
they walk into the casting of-
fice, wave the beards and say,
"Any Russian pictures today?”
(Continued on Page 50)
Some need to go to the cleaner
November, 1 930
/ WONDER WHAT 1 — ,
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GENERAL /N CREASED SCNSlTtSlTi
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5) A GREATER E*P05UflE
Sand oeveLOpnetir latiTupeJ^S
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(Continued from Page 1 1 )
FIC. 5. Illustrating the dimensions involved in the secondary
the optician would need pieces of Fluorite one-half inch thick
and 1 %" in diameter, which pieces are absolutely unobtainable.
The designer of high speed lenses for the cinematographic
camera has to provide reasonable definition over a wide range
of the spectrum and the only materials he can use are known
to be incapable of giving perfect results. His task is there-
fore to find some compromise which will give the required
speed without making the secondary spectrum effect intolerably
An excellent illustration of the method of compromise
usually adopted is to be found in the large refracting telescopes
as used by astronomers. On account of the long focal lengths
involved, which may be anything from 15 to 50 feet, the
secondary spectrum effects in such lenses are very large, and
the best compromise is to be found by bringing to the same
focus two rays of colored light lying at close proximity to each
other. Since photographic emulsions can be made which are
sensitive to the blue and blue-green rays and are not affected
by the yellows and reds, the spherical aberration for these
lenses is corrected for the blue end of the spectrum only and
the foci of the blue and the blue-green rays are made to
It results quite evident that since the visibility of the human
eye is most keen for the yellow region of the spectrum, any
attempt to focus such lenses visually, would result in utter
failure in obtaining sharp pictures. The photographic focus
is therefore found by trial exposures and once found is
This is to be contrasted with the telescope of similar dimen-
sions intended only for visual observation. In this case, the
actinic rays of the Blue and Blue-Green regions of the spectrum
are ignored in favor of a strong concentration of focus in the
region of the bright Red, the Yellow and the bright Green
which colors are the most visible with the naked eye.
The graphs at Figures 1 and 2 show the relation between
wave length, measured vertically, and focusing distance,
measured horizontally, for both cases, since the dimensions
involved are extremely small, in order to present them in a
legible manner, the drawings have been traced schematically
and the magnitude of the errors has been magnified. Also
the conditions illustrated in the figure have been exaggerated
and would not be met in practice in telescopic lenses, though
Figure 2 illustrates the correct color distribution for a pro-
jection lens such as used in cinematography.
In Figure 1, the small departure of the curve at the lower
end from the dotted vertical means that in this region the
blues and blue-green rays are strongly concentrated in, or near
the focal plane, and this is the position which practical tests
would reveal as the plane for the best focus.
Figure 2 shows that the curve, though presenting the same
characteristics as that in Figure 1 , has been rotated to a different
position, through appropriate and relatively simple modifica-
tions in the design of the objective. These optical modifications
result in rolling the curve of the secondary spectrum along
the vertical line without changing the curvature which is fixed
by the abnormal refraction of glass.
The objective so constructed and the characteristics of which
are shown in Figure 2, answers the requirements of visual obser-
vation, but could not be used for photographic purposes with
the sensitive photographic materials. Red sensitive and pan-
chromatic emulsions could only be used if their actinicity to
the blues is arrested by use of appropriate filters which would
necessitate such an increase of exposure to render their use
more impractical than the making of special objective for
Now, it is quite logical to suppose that there is some inter-
mediate position within these two extremes, where the
secondary spectrum curve is not leaning forward as in Figure
1 or backward as in Figure 2 and this is the compromise photo-
visual position which would be adopted if attempts were made
to make the long focus telescopic objectives have coincident
visual and photographic focus. The curve would then be rolled
so that it would occupy the position shown at Figure 4, which
represents the nearest possible compromise to this condition.
The great focal length of telescopic objectives precludes,
however, the practical application of this compromise because
the secondary spectrum errors are so large that extremely
complex constructions are necessary to go only some way
toward improving this defect.
It is for this reason and because the secondary spectrum can-
not be accurately corrected that the largest telescopes are
always of the reflecting type.
Photographic objectives as used for Cinematography, mainly
differ from the telescopic objectives in that their focal length
is much shorter and since the reduction scale proportionately
reduces the actual magnitude of the chromatic errors, it is
possible to construct them so that they will be found acceptable,
while following the same principles of design as heretofore
In pre-panchromatic days when the use of ordinary and
orthochromatic films was prevalent, a lens so designed that
the secondary spectrum curve would be as illustrated in Figure
3, which is the D G curve almost universally adopted by
opticians, was found satisfactory and it was indeed the best
compromise obtainable, because of the lack of sensitivity of
the photographic emulsions for the red rays and because of
the quality of light used which was either unfiltered daylight
or white-flame arcs.
But with the advent of Panchromatic films and the increased
use of sources of light rich in red radiations, the long focus
of the red light gave the well known lack of sharpness which
is quite disturbing in all cases and decidedly detrimental in
most of them.
November, 1 930
C HIEF Cameraman Edward Snyder, A. S. C., and his crew gather at the only wet spot in the middle of the
Painted Desert for a quaff or two during the filming of “The Painted Desert” in Arizona. Bill Boyd and
Helen Twelvetrees are featured in this new Pathe special.
Mr. A. Warmisham, Optical Director of Taylor-Taylor-
Hobson, of England, makers of the famous “Cooke” lenses,
was among the first to take a personal and progressive interest
in the possibilities of improving the design of lenses for cinema-
tographic work under the new conditions created by the
stabilizing of the use of Panchromatic films and incandescent
The result of his investigation personally conducted in the
Hollywood and New York production fields has been the
designing of lenses the secondary spectrum curve of which
has been rolled over as shown in Figure 4, that is to say, lenses
which bring to the same focal plane the blue rays of the line
G and the reds of the line C and which through a remarkable
correction of all other aberrations outside of the chromatic
are extremely suitable for photographing with filtered or un-
filtered daylight or with arc or incandescent lights as well.
These lenses, which have been appropriately named “Speed
Panchros,” present the best compromise which can be reached
today in correcting the chromatic aberrations.
In order to illustrate the dimensions involved, we may men-
tion that the depth of the arc illustrated in Figure 4, between
the lines C and G on a 3" F 2. Speed Panchro lens, is three
thousandths of an inch. This does not mean, however, that
there is an uncertainty in the placing of the focal plane of
that amount. This figure is obtained by critically measuring
the differences in focal length on a color testing bench
especially designed for the purpose and which disregards the
limited resolving power of the eye as well as that of the
photographic emulsions. In actual practice the uncertainty of
focus is shown by photographic tests, to be somewhat less
than one thousandth of an inch.
One reason for this difference in the computation of the
magnitude of the error is also shown in Figure 5. The
secondary spectrum curve has been plotted as focusing dis-
tances against wave lengths stepped off at equal intervals.
These, projected onto the horizontal, plainly show that the
illumination is much more concentrated at the left hand end
of the focusing distances making it quite feasible that the un-
certainty of focus is confined between 0 and .001" rather
than between 0 and .003".
In addition to the visual measurements of color correction
taken through the use of the color testing optical bench, each
lens is tested photographically in the following manner:
A piece of white board is ruled with equidistant black lines.
This board is set in front of the lens to be tested, at an angle
of 45° and is photographed on panchromatic film, illuminating
it first with incandescent lights, second with white-flame
carbon arcs and third, with mercury-arcs. The object is focused
visually and after processing, the film is carefully examined to
ascertain if the lines which present perfect definition coincide
in each of the three tests.
Catholic Film Congress
T HE THIRD French Catholic Film Congress will be held in
Paris from November 4, to 6, inclusive, under the presi-
dency of Cardinal Verdier. Among the questions to be dis-
cussed at this Congress are “the talking picture,” and “the
child in the motion picture theatre.”
November, 1 930
Dupont Announces New Fire-Resistant
Material for Motion Picture Screens
O NE OF THE MOST important announcements of the past
month comes from the offices of the DuPont organiza-
tion. It is to the effect that this company has brought to per-
fection a new material for making fire-resistant motion pic-
ture screens. DuPont research chemists have been working for
a long time to perfect this material, and the company can be
justly proud of its accomplishment. One of the constant fears
of theatre owners is fire. These men have long been demand-
ing a fire-resistant screen material.
This material has been subjected to the most rigorous tests
in the company’s laboratories and by the National Fire Un-
derwriters Two of these tests are pictured above. The Board
of Underwriters gave the following in its report on the ma-
“The product in single sheets as used in theatres will not
burn or propagate flame beyond the area exposed to the source
of ignition. The product in compact form can be ignited with
difficulty resulting in smoldering (flameless) combustion.
“The product is relatively stable and is not liable to undergo
decomposition or change resulting in an increase in hazard.
“Tests of the product which has been subjected to aging
tests did not show any change with respect to combustibility.”
Aside from the all-important fire-resistant feature, this new,
approved motion picture screen material also has the advantages
of a matte finish, which gives a highly uniform degree of re-
flection, and a construction which permits of easy and clean
perforation for sound projection.
Experience is the world’s best school “marm.” The CINEMATOGRAPHIC
ANNUAL was written only by those who graduated from her school.
(Continued from Page 17)
duced by a well corrected lens has a sharpness or degree of
detail reproduction (lens definition) which is far above the
resolving power of the best commercially available motion
picture negative film emulsion of about 40 lines to the
millimeter. The higher resolving power of best positive emul-
sions up to 75 lines per mm. does of course not influence
original detail registration and becomes of value only when
certain methods of optical printing are resorted to, beneficially
influencing grain conditions in magnified projection.
The image sharpness (definition) is therefore limited only
by the resolving power of the negative emulsion, i. e. 40 lines
The image sharpness of the lens system of the human eye
has not been definitely established, and is in a normal structure
probably also higher than the resolving power of the retina.
This resolving power is about ten times as great as that
of the film emulsion or produces an image of ten times better
definition than a motion picture equipment. BUT — this is
only the case at the fovea and for a lens angle of about one-half
The above described involuntary scanning action, out-of-
focus and illumination (contrast) conditions combined with
the lag of nerve reaction, commonly called “persistence of
vision” — invariably produces a composite image of every de-
tail which is not only far below the central resolving power
of retina, but also surprisingly below the actually registered
film definition for any in-focus detail.
The softness of each point of the retinal picture, however, is
a composition of sharp and variously unsharp impressions.
The picture of an object produced by a modern photo-
graphic lens on the other hand is either sharp or unsharp and
never has the characteristic of the superimposition of sharp
and unsharp elements.
When it is sharp or in absolute focus, it is of so called wire-
sharpness, which is especially observable in close ups, may they
be produced by short or long focus lenses. This wiresharpness
is not pleasant to observe, because it is contrary to natural
vision of reality. The greater the magnification produced by the
lens, the more unpleasant the picture becomes, because it
shows even to the scanning eye more details than it can observe
It may at this point be mentioned that the cameraman
ought to realize that in artistic reproduction of nature, the
realistic representation of the pictorial or dramatic character-
istics of the object is of fundamental importance, and that such
characteristics are lost if too many details are clearly shown
(wiresharpness) . There is a scale of characteristics from broad,
dominant contrasting surfaces down to details, losing their
artistic value the lower down they are on the scale.
Diagram No. 2
In photography these characteristics are governed by con-
trast. It is the art in photography and it is the artistic skill of
the cinematographer to produce the proper balance between
contrast and definition, by control or selection of “lighting”
and by lens control in order to approach as closely as possible
such balance as the human eye produces.
Diagram 2 shows within the limitations of a line drawing
the effect of contrast upon definition. Column A shows 5
characteristic wiresharp lines with the greatest possible con-
trast of background. Columns B, C and D show the same
(Continued on Page 28)
T HE Moreno-Snyder Cine Corporation,
Ltd., will, in the very near future,
offer to the motion picture industry,
to organizations, theatres and indi-
viduals, commercial and amateur
motion cameras and projectors of the
CONTINUOUS TYPE — free of the shutter
and intermittent movement — with all the
advantages possessed by such cameras and
Some of these outstanding advantages
CONTINUOUS. The film passes through
the camera at continuously uniform speed
with no intermittent motion on either the
film or any moving part of the camera.
NOISELESS. This fundamental kinematic
characteristic permits of a design which is
noiseless in operation.
EXPOSURE TIME. At the now standard
intermittent film speed of 90 feet per
minute the exposure time per picture
frame is 1 48 seconds. With the M. S.
Camera, and at a continuous film speed of
90 feet per minute the exposure time per
picture frame is about twice as long or
1 24 seconds.
Result: Standard exposure with M. S.
camera is obtained by about 50% of now
necessary standard illumination or of
working lens aperture, thereby increasing
photographic values of picture.
SLOW MOTION. This camera is without
any necessary change of adjustment a
silent "slow motion" camera up to a film
speed of about 300 frames per second or
1 125 feet per minute.
SOUND RECORDING. On account of the
continuously uniform progress of the film
synchronized sound recording can be ef-
fected at the corresponding picture frames
and not a predetermined distance there-
from — another decided advantage over
present standard practices for sound on
COLOR PHOTOGRAPHY. The increased
exposure time for standard film speed
offers great advantages for any system of
DEPTH OF FOCUS. Another desirable
characteristic of the M. S. Camera is the
fact that a greater depth of focus is ob-
tained for any definite setting of any
FOCUSING DEVICE. The change of camera
from focusing (finder) position to expos-
ure position does not move any heavy part
of the camera; but is effected by the jar-
less and practically resistless moving of a
small lever for about VV'. The photo-
graphic lens and the film are untouched,
therefore, no movement of any kind is
CONVENIENCE. The M. S. Camera is very
much lighter than any standard camera,
making it especially desirable for news
ECONOMY. The extreme simplicity of
this camera design lowers its cost.
MAGAZINES. Delivery and windup film
magazines are separate from each other,
permitting about 50% reduction in weight
and bulk of handling of camera film supply.
PROJECTORS. Moreno-Snyder projectors
possess equal advantages to our cameras.
The flicker is absolutely eliminated; less
danger of fire, since the amount of light
is cut in half; systems of colors can be
easily used; weight cut 2/3 and volume
( It is well to note that film made by this
camera may be run on any intermittent
Those interested in the Moreno-Snyder
cameras and projectors, both professional
and amateur models, will take note that
conversations regarding these instruments
and machines may be arranged for by mail,
to take place after the first of November,
MORENO-SNYDER CINE CORPORATION, LTD.
6250 Santa Monica Blvd. Hollywood, California
Please mention the American Cinematographer when writing advertisers.
WE WISH TO ANNOUNCE that in addition to the
Dunning Process patents controlled and operated by us,
we have acquired an exclusive license to all “Trans-
parency” patents owned by PARAMOUNT PUBLIX
CORP. and ROY J. POMEROY.
A few current releases containing Dunning Shots
“WHAT A WIDOW” — Gloria Swanson
“ON THE LEVEL” — Fox
“SOUP TO NUTS” — Fox
“HER MAN”— Pathe
“HALF SHOT AT SUNRISE”— R-K-0
“WOMEN EVERYWHERE” — Fox
“LEATHERNECKINC” — R-K-0
“MADAME DUBARRY” — United Artists
“HOLIDAY” — Pathe
“THE LOTTERY BRIDE” — United Artists
“BORN RECKLESS” — Fox
“You Shoot Today — Screen Tomorrow”
Telephone GLadstone 3959
932 No. LaBrea Ave., Hollywood, Calif.
Get On the Band Wagon
T HE Boothe Company Aluminum contest in which $200 in
cash prizes will be awarded for the three most original
and useful devices for use in connection with the motion
picture industry — and which must be made from aluminum or
an aluminum alloy, is rapidly taking hold among the mechan-
ical men of Hollywood.
There is still a lot of time for the rest of you mechanical
wizards to get started and catch up, and lead the field in at
the home stretch. If you have had an idea floating around in
the back of your head for some time regarding some particular
device that could be made lighter and stronger if made of
aluminum or an aluminum alloy, get busy and make a model
and join the crowd who are working hard right now on models
for this contest.
There are many men in the studios who should be able to
cash in on this contest. But — you amateurs away from the
city of motion pictures have an equally good chance. Put that
idea into being right now. $100 for first award; $60 for
second, and $40 for third are the prizes. And there could be
no easier or pleasanter way to pick up that amount of money
than by enjoying yourself making a model that, in addition
to winning a prize, might lead you into realms that you would
never dream of. This is your opportunity to get your idea in
the public eye. Some men try for years to get the attention
of manufacturers after they have worked out some new device.
Now you are invited to bring in your devices, and if they are
good get paid for them. The contest has three more months
to run. Let us hear from you, and if you have any questions
to ask, send them to the Boothe Company, whose address is
on the opposite page, or send them to the office of the Amer-
Efficiency is the Keynote of Success; Knowledge is the foundation for
both; the CINEMATOGRAPHIC ANNUAL is your textbook of Knowledge.
COMPLETE PORTABLE SOUND EQUIPMENT
AUDIO -CAMEX RECORDER
Using the Audio-Lite;
Use Any Camera by Using our D. C. Synchronous Motors Operated by “B” Batteries
For Further Information Write, Wire or Cable
HOLLYWOOD CAMERA EXCHANGE
1511 North Cahuenga Boulevard
Cable Address: HOCAMEX
THE BOOTHE COMPANY
$200 in Cash Prizes
Here they are . . . those judges who will determine your skill in the BOOTHE COMPANY’S
ALUMINUM CONTEST now being conducted through this magazine . . .
Mr. I. J. Boothe, president of the Boothe Company; Hal Mohr, president American Society
of Cinematographers; William Johnson, chief electrical engineer, R-K-0 Studios; John Arnold,
Chief of M-C-M’s camera department; and Hal Hall, editor of the A. S. C. magazine . . .!
IF YOU HAVEN’T ENTERED ... do so NOW and win one of those three big cash
prizes . . . also if your model is accepted, which probably it will be by some industrial firm . . .
win world-wide fame and a lot more money . . .
There are hundreds of new uses today for aluminum in the motion picture industry. Intro-
duce ONE of them and you’re MADE . . .
Read the rules below and
LET’S CO !
RULES OF CONTEST
1. The BOOTHE COMPANY, ALUMINUM MODEL — CASH PRIZE CONTEST begins with this issue of the AMERICAN CINEMATOG-
RAPHER and ends at midnight of January 15th, 1931. Winners’ names will be announced in the February number of this magazine.
It is not necessary to be a subscriber to this periodical in order to compete.
2. Cash awards of $100 — $60 — and $40 — representing first, second and third prizes will be given by BOOTHE COMPANY to the
three contestants whose models, in the opinion of the judges are considered best adapted to practical and beneficial use in the pro-
duction of motion pictures. Contestants, in case of a tie, will receive like awards.
3. Anyone associated with motion picture work may compete — amateurs as well as professionals. This also means all motion picture
studio or motion picture theatre employees, or any organization whose products are used in motion picture work, except those in
any way associated with the BOOTHE COMPANY or any other organization handling aluminum or aluminum alloys.
4. The judges, whose names are announced in this issue of the AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER, are representatives of various
branches of the motion picture industry. Their decision will be final.
5. Two photographs, a front and side view, with a description of the completed product, must be sent to “The BOOTHE COMPANY
ALUMINUM CONTEST Editor,” 1222 Cuaranty Building, Hollywood, on or before January 15th, 1931. Be sure that this is accom-
panied by your name and address. No communications regarding this contest will be answered, unless accompanied by a self-
addressed, stamped envelope. In no instance shall entries be sent until such request is made by the judges. Products must be
made from aluminum or aluminum alloys. They may be wholly of aluminum or aluminum alloys, or may represent not less than
seventy-five percent of these metals by weight. They may represent in their entirety a product useful to the motion picture
industry, or may be a part, attachment or accessory to be used on some apparatus, machine or structure now employed.
When you need
need the BEST!
. . You GET it at the
Copper and Zinc Half-Tones
Color Work Designing
1606 Cahuenga Avenue Telephone HE 8149
Art Reeves Phone
Cliff Thomas HCIlywood 9431
Tlie Clearing House
Mitchell and Bell & Howells FOR RENT
Cameras and Projectors and
Accessories bought and sold
Kodak Supplies Still Finishing
16 mm., 35 mm. Developed and Printed
1511 N. Cahuenga Blvd.
Cable Address: Hocamex
(Continued from Page 24)
definition of the five lines, but a gradually decreasing contrast
of background. It is clearly seen how the significant relative
form, characteristic of these five wiresharp lines, is gradually
destroyed by lack of contrast.
The skilled cinematographer is well aware of these condi-
tions and he has at present for their control, three technical
elements at his disposition.
1. Lighting or selection of illumination is of prime import-
ance, because it is of the greatest influence upon
2. Contrast, which, however, is also influenced by
3. Lens definition.
Illumination, he has pretty well under control, but defini-
tion only partly.
As far as lens action is concerned, the picture is either in
focus or out of focus, or in other words it is either wire-
sharp or “fuzzy.” Trying to eliminate wiresharpness by focus
control simply shifts the attention from the main object, there-
by destroying the dramatic qualities of the picture. Lens manu-
facturers, realizing these conditions, endeavored to pro-
duce so called soft lenses, which, however, are only of very
limited satisfactory application, because the degree of softness
or sharpness cannot be quickly changed without destroying
the all important depth of focus or its proper placement in
There is another optical means, the optical engineer has
furnished to the cameraman — the diffusion disc.
There are very few optically correct diffusion discs. Gener-
ally they produce not an even softening of the picture over
the whole field as excelled in by the human eye and approx-
imated by so-called soft lenses, but place in the picture, more
or less overlapping spots or areas of distortions, by no means en-
hancing the photographic quality of the picture. They are,
nevertheless, better means of preventing wiresharpness of
the main object, simply because so called diffusion does not
influence depth of focus nor does it shift the center of attrac-
It must furthermore be realized that the scanning action of
the human eye maintains by its instant accommodation or
focus change a balance of definition over the whole width and
depth of the field, thereby producing a composite nerve image
which we are used to, which we call natural vision of reality
and which we expect to see on the screen. Plainly expressed,
we want to see on the screen an even, soft definition of all
objects in the field, wherever they are located in the width of
the picture or in apparent distance.
All modern motion picture equipment, however up-to-date,
only produces screen pictures, the definition of which is un-
even or unbalanced or unnatural.
The illusion of natural balance of definition can only be
approximated, because the cameraman’s equipment can neither
produce a picture composed of sharp and unsharp definition
of details, nor a naturally balanced definition for all visible
In scanning a motion picture image there is no possibility of
improving an out of focus picture element by accomodation,
and the softening effect of such scanning action cannot pro-
duce such total balance we are used to in contemplation of
So far only lens definition, resolving power of film emulsion
and illumination contrasts have been partly analyzed in their
influence upon screen definition.
A further analysis on hand of test photographs and the con-
sideration of a number of other factors, influencing retinal
and screen definition will follow in future articles.
Ed. Note: This is the first of a series of articles by Dr. Dieterich.
Watch for the next one in the December issue.
For Authentic Information Read the Annual!
Order Your Annual NOW!
November, 1 930
New Sound System Features Magnetic
Record on Celluloid Film
F OR the past five decades there has continually been a con-
siderable amount of research work carried on in the field of
sound recording, but since the advent of the talking picture,
this activity has greatly increased and broadened. As far as
motion picture phonography is concerned, two main courses
of experiment have been pursued. The first of these is the
obvious one of improving the existing methods and apparatus;
the second is that of devising new systems which may be free
from the many admitted failings of the accepted film and disc
Two of the newer, experimental methods which have re-
ceived the most attention have been those which recorded the
sound by means of varying magnetic charges upon a steel wire
or ribbon (as in the Still Process), and those which sought
to engrave a sound record in the body of the celluloid film
upon which the picture is photographed (as in the newly an-
nounced Spoor Process.)
From our French contemporary, LE CINEOPSE, we learn that
a new process has been developed, which combines these two
recording methods. LE CINEOPSE describes this process as
FILM VIEWING AND SOUND
FOR USE WITH: SEPARATE
PICTURE FILM AND SOUND
FILM, COMPOSITE FILM AND
SOUND ON DISC RECORD.
FOR EDITING 35 MM. FILM,
16 MM. FILM, WIDE FILM.
Write for Circulars Describ-
ing the Different Models
1451 CORDON STREET HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA
FIG. 1. Schematic diagram of Nublat magnetic reproducer. 1. Magnetic
metal shank which picks up the sound vibrations. 1-a. The end of
the shank remaining at all times at a distance sufficient to permit the
passage of the film without friction, and consequently without wear.
2. Non-magnetic housing. 3. Second shank modifying the strength
and direction of the current flowing through the coil (8). 4. Rubber
blocks. 5. Electromagnet. 6, 7. Film, and phonographic groove. 8.
Coil influenced by the magnetic current which induces an electromag-
netic current modulated according to the phonographic record.
9. Amplifier. 10. Loudspeaker.
FIC. 2. Line drawing of Nublat sound-on-film recording, showing (6),
the phonographic record formed by a deposit of magnetic material
incrusted in the film.
“A new method of recording and reproducing sound, said
to be of the greatest resonance, has just been developed by a
Frenchman, M. Nublat, and a company for its exploitation has
been incorporated with a capitalization of several million
“M. Nublat has completely changed the old methods of
sound-on-film recording, to the great advantage of the
exhibitor, who will no longer have to pay the heavy tribute
exacted by the monopolies controlling the recording processes
now in use.
“The recorder is of such simplicity that its operation cannot
be in any way interfered with, and its installation in the studio
will be no more expensive than the cost of a first-class camera.
“The reproducer is likewise of astonishing simplicity. In
the new principle of this apparatus, the photo-electric cell is
entirely done away with, and with it, naturally, all its numerous
inconveniences. It utilizes in the more or less conventional
manner, a moveable shank of magnetic metal, placed in a field
such that, proportionally with the movement of the film, upon
which is a phonographic groove of magnetic properties, the
shank follows the recorded vibrations, as it invariably follows
the path of least resistance to the magnetic circuit, and this
without any friction upon the film-record. The superiority of
such a system is evident. The phonographic groove of the
film passing at normal speed between an electromagnet and
a shank which transmits the sounds to the pick-up, thence to
the amplifiers, and loud-speakers, explains a purity of tone
superior to that of the best disc recordings, due to the elimi-
nation of all friction, and therefore of all surface-noise. This
also means the absolute elimination of the photo-electric cell,
of its exciting-battery, lamps, etc., of the maintenance of these
invariably delicate units, and their high first cost.
“Undoubtedly, if such a system as this is successful, it will
prove of considerable importance in not only the fields of
theatrical production and exhibition, but particularly in the
industrial and home-talkie fields as well.”
Smallest Talkie House
L C. PEARSON of the Northern Electric Company, which is
the Canadian offspring distributing Western Electric Sound
Systems in the Dominion, receives credit for bringing in a con-
tract for an installation in what is believed to be the smallest
theatre in the world. The house is the Crescent at Temiskam-
ing, Quebec, and seats 240. It is patronized almost entirely by
employees of a pulp and paper company whose plant is located
BOOK of KNOWLEDGE
for EVERYBODY d irectly or indirectly interested in the
MOTION PICTURE INDUSTRY
PRODUCTION . . PHOTOGRAPHY. . EXHIBITION . . LABORATORY
. . SOUND . . COLOR EFFECTS. A Wealth of Facts and Statistics Offering
Simple Information and Technical Explanations :: :: :: :: :: ::
: Y " WU'
Forcefully Written byMasterTechni-
cians and Recognized Authorities . .
Presented in Terms, Pictures and Language
Everyone Understands :: :: ::
Has a definite place in the Library of all Production and Distribu-
tion Executives, Directors, Writers, Technicians, Sound and Lighting
Engineers, Editors, Photographers, Laboratory Directors and
Home Movie Makers.
• ^ 3 ; Ft* $
Bound in Blue and Cold. 675 Pages.
Postage Prepaid Anywhere in the World.
Compiled and Published by
The AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CINEMATOGRAPHERS
OBEY THAT IMPULSE - - CUT OUT AND MAIL TODAY
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CINEMATOGRAPHERS,
1222 Guaranty Building, Hollywood, California.
Gentlemen: Enclosed please find check (or money order) for Five Dollars ($5.00) for which
please send me prepaid, one copy of your Cinematographic Annual.
The American Society of Cinematographers,
Suite 1222 Guaranty Building,
It gives me a great deal of pleasure to acknowledge
the receipt of the Cinematographic Annual for
1930, and to thank you for your courtesy in
complimenting me with this copy.
I have enjoyed looking through the book ai
greatly interested in its contgatrST^” Allow
to congratulate you on sucj^a ffne productioi
Will give you the results you need. We have
the largest laboratory devoted to Composite
Cinematography in Hollywood.
Any background, either real scenes or miniature,
may be used. Scenes may be corrected
Let us handle your intricate shots, your most
dangerous, spectacular and hazardous scenes.
Let us cooperate and plan with you, whether
for a sequence or one scene.
Call Frank Williams for an Appointment
8111 Santa Monica Blvd.
Tel. OXford 1611
# A New Color Film System 0
Extraordinary simplicity in take and projec-
Natural color pictures in a new purely mechan-
ical way. Patent rights to sell.
W. B. BREDSCHNEIDER,
Poland, Warsaw, Leszno 1 13-3
produce Moonliqk} and NiqW Sffocls in haylime
Foq Scenes- Diffused Focus and many other effects,
just like they make ’em in Hollywood
cAsk youp dealer or write to
GEORGE H . SCHEIBE
I927-WV-78I2 ST. LOS ANGELES.CAL .
Negative Developing and Daily Print
6701 SANTA MONICA BLVD.
Measurement of Density
(Continued from Page 15)
We shall not attempt to discuss the significance of these
data in any detail, but wish only to point out one or two
matters of interest.
A factorial difference in density determination results in a
factorial difference in gamma. If the reproducer measures a
gamma value 1.3 times higher than that determined by sensi-
tometric methods employing diffuse densitometry, an audible
harmonic may be introduced.
Some other factor, such as reciprocity failure which makes
the sensitometrically determined gamma higher than the nega-
tive sound track gamma, may partially or completely compen-
sate for the effect of higher sound projection gamma.
A second effect resulting from higher projection gamma is
a change in the shape of the toe of the H & D characteristic.
The toe of the characteristic curve which is effective in the
semi-specular reproducer system will be shorter than that of
the curve determined by the diffuse densitometer.
'CALLIER, A.: “The Absorption and Scatter of Light by Photo-
graphic Negatives, Measured by Means of the Martens Polarization
Photometer,” Phot. J. 49 (n. s. 33 ) (1909), p. 200.
2 BLOCH, O., and RENWICK, F. F.: “The Opacity of Diffusing Media,”
Phot. J., 56 (n. s. 40 ) (1916), p. 49.
TUTTLE, C. : “The Relation between Diffuse and Specular Density,”
J. Optical Soc. Amer., 12 (June, 1926), p. 559.
4 SILBERSTEIN, L., and TUTTLE, C.: “The Relation between the Spec-
ular and Diffuse Photographic Densities,” J. Optical Soc. Amer., 14
(May, 1 927 ) , p. 365.
3 MacKENZIE, DONALD: “Sound Recording wth the Light Valve,”
Trans. Soc. Mot. Piet. Eng., XII (1928), No. 35, p. 730.
8 JONES, L. A., and SANDVIK, O.: “Photographic Characteristics of
Sound Recording Film,” J. Soc. Mot. Piet. Eng., XIV (February, 1930),
7 WATKINS, S. S., and FETTER, C. H.: "Some Aspects of a Western
Electric Sound Recording System," J. Soc. Mot. Piet. Eng., XIV (May,
1930), p. 520.
8 BULL, A. J., and CARTWRIGHT, H.: “The Measurement of Photo-
graphic Density,” J. Sci. Instruments, 1 (1923-4), p. 74.
“CAPSTAFF, j., and PURDY, R.: “A Compact Motion Picture Densi-
lometer,” Trans. Soc. Mot. Piet. Eng., XI 0928), No. 31, p. 607.
Moviolas Now Available for All Film Sixes
F OR many years the standby of the film-editor has been the
indispensable “Moviola” film-viewing machine. Since
sound has entered the business of picture-making, several
models of sound-equipped “Moviolas” have been evolved,*
facilitating the cutting of pictures with sound on film (single
or double system) or disc.
Now that wide film is coming to the fore, the ingenious
Iwan Serrurier, designer of the Moviolas, has perfected new
models of the device, for all sizes of wide film. At the same
time, he has also perfected several models of Moviola for
16 mm. film, which should find great favor, not only with
individual amateur users, but especially with Commercial 16
mm. producers, and amateur cine-clubs.
* See The American Cinematographer for January, 1930.
Tanar Corporation Moves
C ONTINUING their remarkable expansion, the Tanar
Corporation is now moving into new quarters at 5357
Santa Monica Boulevard, with their laboratories at 1110-1112
North Serrano Ave., Hollywood. The entire ground flood of
more than 6000 square feet of the building have been taken
over. Next month we’ll have pictures of it.
He who DOES a thing best is he who KNOWS HOW.
Read the Cinematographic Annual!
Making “Whoopee” with “Inkies”
by FAY LAWRENCE
"The technical data of this article was furnished me by WM. O. MELLOR" . . F. L.
U NTIL recently, the motion picture industry was unanimous
in the opinion that natural color, musical pictures were
passe. But with the release of Samuel Goldwyn’s latest
production, “Whoopee,” starring Eddie Cantor, this opinion
has undergone an abrupt bouleversement. For “Whoopee” is
an all Technicolor, musical production — and a sensational suc-
cess. Unquestionably, this film is the finest all-color produc-
tion yet released, and as such is a personal triumph for its
director, Thornton Freeland, and its cinematographer, Lee
The remarkable lack of the blurriness heretofore noticeable
in color runs is undoubtedly due in no small measure to the
careful placement of the lighting equipment used. As is well
known, the color process used in making this picture requires
an increase of approximately 50 percent, in the intensity of
the illumination used. Thus it may be understood that the
problem of lighting was highly intricate, requiring a thorough
knowledge of lighting, and a delicately balanced sense of
values. Furthermore, it demanded a highly unusual variety
and efficiency of lighting equipment. Mole-Richardson light-
ing units — both Incandescent and Arc — were used exclusively
in the production; several special units having been evolved
expressly for the purpose of securing certain of the unusual
lighting effects introduced in the picture.
Some of the individual s.cenes were actually breath-taking
in their beauty. The first ensemble dance number, for in-
stance — the famous “Sombrero Number” — executed in the
patio of a colorful ranch house, is noteworthy. Here the con-
trast of brilliant orange hues, delicate blue-greens, and soft
browns forms a remarkably entrancing scene. The white walls
of the patio, the red tiles of the roof of the ranch-house, and
the green of the surrounding shrubbery combine to create an
appealing background. A tremendous amount of light was
necessary to illumine this set so as to accurately reveal the
coloring. A total load of approximately 21,600 amperes
was used by a total of 325 lighting units, consisting of ninety-
five overhead strip units, each using five 1,000-watt lamps;
one hundred and ninety 24" sun spots, each using a 5,000
kilowatt globe; and forty 36" sun spots with 10,000 kilowatt
This scene is followed by a spectacular shot, straight down
above the combined chorus, executing a unique circle dance.
One receives the odd impression of viewing a great, circular
blossom of unearthly origin that opens and closes its petals with
swift regularity, suddenly to dissolve into a writhing, living
mass of color — and as quickly, to form another beautiful
pattern. These effects are cleverly achieved by the synchroniz-
ing movements of the dancers and their manipulation of large,
white sombreros. It is a gorgeous, circular kaleidoscope of
contrasting colors. To illuminate this scene sufficient over-
head was used plus fifteen 10 kilowatt lamps and fifteen 5
kilowatt lamps, low on the hot side, with seven 5 kilowatts on
the shadow side, diffused to give roundness.
The film continues to unfold scenes worthy of the attention
of every technical man in the industry. A particularly beauti-
ful one is a balcony love-scene between Paul Gregory and
Elinor Hunt. Color and lighting are at their best here. Every
element is natural, the flowers in bloom on the trellis-work of
the balcony, brilliant, red blossoms against dark, green leaves,
(Continued on Page 45)
A striking scene from “Whoopee”
by WILLIAM STULL, A. S. C.
Stills From Cine Film
T HE AMATEUR movie maker rarely has any time to even
think of stills while he is making his motion pictures. Yet
how frequently will he, while running his films, exclaim to
himself, “How I wish I had a still of that!”
Well, why not? Moving pictures are nothing more than a
collection of individual still pictures, so why not select one of
them and make a still enlargement from it? There are several
devices available for this purpose — and even if there weren’t,
ordinary projectors and enlargers would do the trick.
The first requisite naturally is a suitable “frame” to en-
large. This, in the first place, should be free from such phys-
ical imperfections, as scratches, abrasions, and so on. Then, it
should be properly exposed, and rather on the contrasty side:
softness, or flatness makes a very poor enlargement. The
image should be crisply focused, with as much depth as pos-
sible, and, above all, the grain should be as small as possible.
Finally, the subject should be caught in such a phase of move-
ment as will make an interesting and attractive still picture.
Having selected the “frame” to be enlarged, the next con-
sideration is the method of making the enlargement, and the
best size of enlargement to make. Inasmuch as the picture on
a 16mm. film is so small, it is unwise to attempt to make a
still negative larger than approximately 21/4x314 from it. It
is true that in projection the same tiny frames are enlarged
vastly more, with no apparent ill effects, but there are two
factors which make this possible. In the first place, the pro-
jected image is in motion, and our interest is concentrated
not on the photographic perfection or imperfection of the pic-
ture, but upon the action that is taking place on the screen.
Furthermore, the projected picture is viewed from a distance
of several feet — from which the details of minor technical
imperfections are not readily visible — while still pictures of
snapshot size are usually viewed at a distance of a few inches
— from which every detail (good or bad) is instantly discern-
ible. Therefore, though a 16mm. frame may be enlarged as
much as five of six hundred times in cinematic projection, an
enlargement of around seventy diameters is the maximum gen-
erally allowable in making still pictures. This maximum is
represented by the 2!4x3!4-inch dimension previously re-
The most logical method of making enlargements from
16mm. film is to employ one’s regular projector, for the pro-
jector is, in effect, nothing more than an enlarger equipped
to project enlarged images from the cine “frames” in rapid
succession. Therefore if it is equipped with some means for
preventing the intense heat of the projection light from dam-
aging the motionless film in the aperture, it may quite natur-
ally be used as an enlarger. The manufacturers of some pro-
jectors (notably the “Filmo” in this country and “Bol” in
Europe) have recognized this, and devised special attach-
ments for their machines which make enlarging simplicity
itself. But those who do not own such outfits may easily adapt
their present machines to such service. The most obvious re-
quirement is some sort of an easel, or other support for the
film or plate upon which the enlargement is made, which will
be in the proper position relative to the lens, and absolutely
parallel with the plane of the film in the projector. Any in-
accuracy in this will tend to destroy the definition in some
parts of the enlargement. Inasmuch as most projectors dis-
perse some light in all directions, it is best to cover the pro-
jector with a black cloth while enlarging. Similarly, it is advis-
able to check the evenness of the illumination received by the
easel before starting work.
In using the “Filmo” projector and its enlarging apparatus,
a point to be remembered is that the more powerful “45-50”
condenser used for Kodacolor projection is not advisable for
enlarging, as it concentrates so much light upon the film that
over-exposure, and in consequence, flatness, results. The best
results are obtained with the less powerful “F5-50” con-
densers with which these cameras are usually equipped, or,
if the other must be used, by reducing the intensity of the
Naturally, most “still” enlargers may also be used for this
work, although, since they do not have any provision for han-
dling the long rolls of film, or for moving it frame by frame
past the aperture, they are not nearly so convenient to use.
There are, however, several enlargers made for making enlarge-
ments from standard 35mm. film, as used in the “Leica,”
“Q-R-S-deVry” and “Ansco” “Still-film” cameras, which
may very conveniently be used for enlarging from 16mm.
films as well.
Making the Enlargement
There are three methods that can be used in making still
enlargements from cine film. The first is to make the orig-
inal cinematographic picture on negative film, then making an
enlargement directly from this negative, on Bromide paper, in
the usual manner.
The second is to use the ordinary reversal film, but to make
a negative from the reversal positive, by contact printing, sub-
sequently using this “dupe” negative for enlarging as above.
The third method is, in all ways, the most practical. This
is to use reversal film — or a positive print made from a nega-
tive, in the ordinary way — and make an enlarged negative from
this, making the enlarged prints from this, by contact. This
has the great advantage of giving an enlarged negative, from
which prints may be made at any time, by contact, without
any further trouble over enlarging. Furthermore, from this
enlarged negative, it is frequently possible to make still fur-
ther enlarged prints with much better results, and less trouble,
than if the additional enlargement were made from the orig-
inal 16mm. “frame.”
In making these enlarged negatives, the users of the various
enlargers which are accessories to projectors usually are con-
fined to the use of film packs. Of course, any brand of film-
pack may be used, but it is as well to use whatever brand the
manufacturer of that particular enlarger recommended, inas-
much as the shutter action on the enlarger is usually timed to
give a perfect exposure upon that particular emulsion. In any
case, however, the film with the finest grain is preferable.
The users of other enlarging devices, however, may have
quite a considerable range of sensitive products to choose from.
(Continued on Page 41 )
. . . in which
John Arnold’s Filmo
does a 35 mm. size job !
John Arnold, A. S. C., with his Filmo 70-D
J OHN ARNOLD, mainspring of the
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Camera Depart-
ment, has a bump of curiosity as big as the
"bungalows” he originates. An inveterate
(and successful) experimenter, he uses his
Filmo camera constantly in his more or
less private searches for new angles on
cinematography and cinemachinery.
"I get a lot of fun out of my Filmo, but
I do a lot of experimentation with it, too,
at a whole lot less cost than if I used
standard film,” says Mr. Arnold.
Mr. Arnold’s interest in Filmo extends
beyond his own researches into the use
made of this camera by other film colon-
ists. Among his interesting discoveries is
the fact that newly arrived actors and
actresses, all ardent Filmo fans, are using
their cameras in learning how to time
their movements when they face the big
Bell & Howell’s in the studio.
The "professional amateurs” who use
Filmo — and they are many — turned
naturally to this camera, guided by
years of experience with the big Bell &
Howell. Precision is its middle-name,
and, while not so simple to operate
Filmo 70-D — “Master of all personal movie cameras. ” Seven
film speeds, three-lens turret, variable viewfinder. $245 and
up in Sesamee-locked Mayfair case. Other Filmos from $92. 00
up. Filmo Projectors, $198 and up. Many Bell & Howell
dealers offer convenient budget payment plans
as your cigarette lighter, it doesn’t miss it by far. Ask your
dealer to show you the Filmo. Or write today for literature.
BELL & HOWELL
Professional Results with Amateur Ease
Bell & Howell Co., Dept. W, 1848 Larchmont Ave., Chicago * New York, Hollywood, London (B & H Co., Ltd.) * Established 1907
Bei Aufragen und Bestellungen beziehen Sie sich bitte auf die American Cinematographer.
Mr. MacKenna does some enlarging
F PERSONAL photography could be reduced to a com-
mon denominator, that common factor would be the
family Kodak. For although there are thousands who
own cine cameras, everyone owns some sort of a still
camera. Yet the majority of these camera-owners can
hardly be called photographers even by the greatest
courtesy, for photography, to them, consists solely of
pointing the camera in the general direction of some-
thing or other, pressing a button, and — blaming the
“finisher” for the inevitably bad results. They make no
attempt to acquaint themselves with even the ele-
mentary principles underlying the operation of a camera;
and the artistic side of photography is, to them, a closed
— even unknown — book.
All of which is by way of introducing Kenneth Mac-
Kenna — one of Hollywood’s “professional amateurs”
who graduated from the “button pushing” class before
he entered it. For Mr. MacKenna, coming from a family
of artists, realized from the first that there was more
to photography than mere snapshooting, and accordingly
approached the subject with intelligently-directed en-
“My real introduction to photography,” he says, “came
when I was called to Hollywood to do talking pictures
for Fox. I’d played in several silent pictures in the East
before, but as I was then dividing my time between the
stage and the screen, I hadn’t time to really study my
surroundings in the studios. Out here, it was different.
I settled down in Hollywood, and devoted myself en-
tirely to not only making moving pictures, but to really
learning how they are made. During my career on the
stage, I’d managed to make myself intimately familiar
with every detail of theatrical production, and naturally
I wanted to familiarize myself with picture production
in the same way. Of course, the most obvious difference
I found was the introduction of the movie camera be-
tween the player and his audience. So I told myself that
In Which We Present an
I’d have to begin by learning something about photog-
“But you know how it is when you are on a pic-
ture. You’ve not time for anything else. So I put off
my start at learning photography more and more. Be-
sides, I was so bewildered by the variety of amateur
still and movie cameras available that I hardly knew
which way to turn.
“Then one Sunday I went out to the beach with
Arthur Hornblow and his family, and I saw Arthur’s
handly little ‘Leica’ still-film camera. It was so neat
and compact that it interested me immediately; but,
well, I couldn’t quite see the value of making such
tiny pictures as that little camera made — and I
couldn’t believe what Arthur told me about the en-
largements he could make from them. But when we
got back into town, Arthur convinced me by producing
some pictures as big as 8x10 and even 11x14, which
had been made from the tiny Leica films.
“The next day I got myself a Leica!
“I found that I’d made no mistake in getting it,
for it enabled me to teach myself photography just
as well as though I were using a big camera — and
certainly at a far smaller cost. Considering the number
of mistakes I made in those early days, that last item
One of Mr. MacKenna’s stills
Amateur 7/ S t i 1 1 7 Man
was important! The cameramen that I worked with on
my various pictures gave me every help, too, for they
were always willing to explain any point that I didn’t
“With their help, I soon managed to pick up a fairish
understanding of the elements of photography. They
gladly taught me all about exposure, lighting, and so
on; and since my father and brother are both painters,
and had given me some idea of composition, all I had
to do was to learn how to adapt my knowledge of com-
position to the requirements of photography.
“So it wasn’t long before I had become really in-
terested in photography for its own sake. Then — like
most other amateurs — I soon became dissatisfied at being
able only to take the picture, and having to let someone
else do the developing, printing, and enlarging that
really completed the work. So the next time I went down
town, I ordered a complete ‘Leica’ dark-room outfit.
“It came, a few days later, just as I was dashing out
— late — to a friend’s party. I had the various boxes, etc.,
taken up to my room, then hurried away for the evening.
When I came home, much later, those boxes intrigued
me. I couldn’t rest until I’d opened them. So, although
it was well after midnight, I dug out a hatchet, and set about
installing my little laboratory. But by the time that I had gotten
everything ready to use, I was so excited over it all that I
naturally had to use it! So then and there, quite unmindful of
the fact that it was more than a little beyond the wee sma’
hours I made my first enlargement. The less that is said about
Mr. McKenna forgets acting
the first one, the better, for it was by no means satisfactory
enough to let me go to bed and sleep like a sensible man. Nor
was the next, or the next. But making them was so fascinating
that I didn’t want to sleep. Instead, I sat up and experimented
all night, until by morning I had a collection of really nice
(Continued on Page 42)
Another of Mr. McKenna’s stills
November, 1 930
Upper left, Dawn on the Mediterranean.
Left center, Sunrise in Italy. Taken at four o’clock in the morning.
Lower left, Sunset in Alaska.
Upper right, Alaskan scene on a cloudy day.
Right center, Venice on a cloudy day.
Lower right. Another Alaskan scene.
Cine-Kodak Goes on Alaskan Location
by JOHN W. BOYLE, A. S. C.
W HEN a man’s business is that of making motion pic-
tures for the amusement of the rest of the world, he
seldom has much time to think more than momen-
tarily of anything else, even himself. Therefore, although I
have used a 16mm. Cine-Kodak for many years, I’ve con-
fined my amateur activities to the routine subjects found at
home, and among my friends. And though I’ve often seen
things around the studio and on location while I’ve been work-
ing, which I’ve longed to secure for my home library, I’ve
never carried my amateur cinematic interests into my profes-
However, this summer, something happened which changed
my point of view. I had decided that I’d spent quite enough
time working on hot, sound-proof stages, so I sought out pro-
ductions that were to be made in the well-known ‘great
open spaces.’ I joined the R-K-0 Camera Staff, and im-
mediately had the good fortune to be associated with Karl
Struss, A. S. C., in charge of the photography of their big
railroad ‘special,’ “Danger Lights,’’ which was made both in
standard 35mm. film and wide film, using the Spoor- Berggren
63mm. process. Our locations were along the main line of
the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad, and
during the six weeks that we were out we lived in a de Luxe
special train, among some of the most beautiful scenery in
America. The combination of this scenery and the fascinating
novelty of our intimate contact with the railroad activities
soon had me wishing I’d brought my Cine-Kodak along. But
it remained for one of our sound engineers to have done it.
When we returned, he had made a very complete record of
our trip, in all its aspects, from scenes of the boys bathing
in the icy waters of the Missouri river to our ‘Special’ pulling
into Chicago. After seeing his film, I decided that wherever
my next location might be, I’d take my Cine-Kodak along
and make my own record of the trip.
Two weeks later, I was assigned to the company going to
Alaska, to make “The Silver Horde.” That clinched it! Alaska
is one of the few places on this old globe that I hadn’t seen
and photographed, so my Cine-Kodak was surely going along!
I laid in an ample stock
of Panchromatic film,
j got some new gelatine
filters, and was off. I
make a practice of
keeping a K-2 gelatine
filter mounted just in
front of the front com-
bination of my lens all
of the time. Of course,
occasionally there are
times when a K-3 or a
C filter is preferable;
but the matter of
changing filters is very
simple. Very early in
the morning, and very
late in the evening,
when the light is weak,
and quite yellow, and
your 1.9 lens must be
used wide open, no
filter is necessary. But
/ as a general rule, I try
to photograph all of my
shots through filters. On our departure from Seattle, the
weather was fairly good, and as the Pacific Fleet was in port,
we had a more than usually interesting background. The In-
side Passage was very interesting, and worthy of considerable
footage. It reminded me strongly of the Inland Sea of Japan,
except that the islands were more mountainous, and the
channel generally narrower.
As our object was to reach Alaska at the height of the
Salmon season, we found much interesting activity to photo-
graph, both professionally and personally. The methods used
in trapping the fish, both in the large, stationary traps, and
in the floating ones, are worth a complete picture in them-
selves, and offer plenty of action — and some interesting sound,
too. The traps are huge affairs, and have to be emptied —
“brailed,” the fishermen call it — at certain times during the
day. Since there is an eighteen foot tide in this part of the
world, the fishing operations require a great deal of skill and
efficiency. Then there is the possibility of getting some really
spectacular scenes of the salmon going up the streams to
spawn. Of course, I had read how these fish rush up the
rivers in literal droves, leaping over roaring waterfalls, and
so on, but until I actually saw them doing it, I had never
fully realized what a remarkable spectacular performance it
is. It makes an unusually interesting film, particularly if you
have some moderately long-focus lenses, so that you can get
fairly big images of the fish, yet remain yourself out of reach
of the spray from the falls. The operations of the canneries,
themselves, are equally interesting. All of the canneries are
large and sanitary, and in many instances so well illuminated
by natural light that it is possible to take interiors at a stop
no greater than F:2.3, with the camera running at normaf
The people of Alaska are very hospitable, and — which is
even more important to a photographer — they are “picture
minded,” and will go well out of their way to help a fellow-
secure a picture. The towns are full of interesting sights, from
Totem Poles to Indian villages — to say nothing of the many
picturesque native characters. At one of the villages where we
worked, the houses were
all built over the water
on piles, with narrow,
wooden walks serving
as streets. And these-
were by no means only
the poorer parts of the
town, but even parts of
the business district. It
is certainly a queer sen-
sation to be walking
along in front of really
respectably big busi-
ness buildings, and’
realize that they are-
all supported on piling,
and stand, perhaps, in-
five or ten feet of
water at high tide! In
another town where we
worked, the traffic
problem was almost
like that of an Ameri-
( Continued on
New Portable Recorder for Double
market has not been favorable to full length films of this na-
ture. Consequently, some extraordinarily fine films have been
inaccessible to the American public generally and especially to
the home, church, and school fields where such material is most
An effective remedy is now offered by the Bell & Howell
Company which has prepared one and two reel versions, on
16 mm. film, of some of Amkino’s best productions.
Among these new Bell & Howell releases is a two reel pic-
ture of life among the primitive family tribes of a tiny, forest
people, the Ussurians. Their mode of getting a living by
skillful hunting and fishing, their social division of labor
between the sexes, and finally the influence of Western
civilization in bringing commendable changes to these back-
ward, simple people are arrestingly portrayed. One of the most
interesting moments shows the excitement of a native when
he sees himself in the movies for the first time. This film,
which is entitled “Taming the Taiga,’’ ranks with the best
Front view recording head
-THE HOLLYWOOD CAMERA EXCHANGE has just announced
an entirely new, portable sound recording system for which
they are the sole agent. The outstanding feature of the new
system is that it uses the double-film system as used in the
studio recorders. The recorder is an entirely separate unit from
the camera, both being driven by synchronous Direct Current
motors, operating from “B” batteries. This is believed to be
the first installation to successfully use Direct Current, battery-
powered motors in absolute synchronization.
The electrical equipment of this new recording system is
unusually complete, yet compact. The microphone is of the
condensor type, and the amplifier is a four-stage, direct-coupled
design, with a gain in excess of 100 decibels. The whole
amplifying unit, including the microphone, headphones, spare
recording lamps, and all necessary equipment except the bat-
teries, is assembled in a carrying case measuring 17" high, 1 1"
wide, and 10" deep. The batteries are in another case, while
the recording head fits into a third.
The recording head is of cast aluminum, and uses standard
Mitchell magazines. It is fitted with a footage- meter, tacho-
meter, speed controller, and a switching arrangement which
permits the use of either camera or recorder alone, or of the
two together, in synchronization. This sound system, of which
the Hollywood Camera Exchange is sole agent, has been worked
out by Hollywood engineers with years of experience, accord-
ing to Art Reeves and Cliff Thomas, heads of that organization.
Russian Travel and Educational Films Made
Available in 16 MM.
T HE EXCEPTIONAL quality of Russian travel and educational
films thus far introduced into this country has aroused
widespread favorable attention from American film critics,
educators, and the motion picture world generally.
Thus far the presentation of Russian pictures, except for a
few features like “Potemkin’’ and “The Fall of St. Peters-
burg,” which enjoyed runs at Roxy’s Theatre in New York
City, has been limited to some of the smaller movie houses in
the larger cities, due to the fact that the general theatrical
Amplifier and microphone of new portable equipment
socio-naturalist films and is of compelling interest for home,
school and church showing.
Another of these releases is the one reeler “Hunting and
Fishing in Siberia,” which is of special interest to the lovers of
unusual sport and travel films and which includes the killing
of a giant bear by a native single-handed and armed only
with a spear.
A third release is a one reeler on Afghanistan, reported to
be the only motion picture ever made with the consent of
the Afghan authorities. The extremely primitive methods of
agriculture are plainly and interestingly shown, likewise the
towns and their crowded bazaars and busy handicraftsmen;
also camel, elephant, and buffalo transport; ruins of ancient
temples and, then, the surprising forced-draft of modernity
introduced by the ill-fated King Amanullah. Travel interest,
humor and educational value are skillfully blended.
Have you ordered your Annual?
Amateur Movie Making
(Continued from Page 34)
While filmpacks are hardly suitable for use with ordinary en-
largers, or with projectors individually adapted to such service,
there is an almost unlimited range of cut-films and plates
available. Almost any good, slow, Orthochromatic emulsion
will do; speed and color-correction being, naturally, of no
importance. Speed is, in fact, somewhat of a disadvantage,
inasmuch as the grain increases out of all proportion to in-
creases in speed. Users of plates will find that the special
“Lantern-Slide” plates will be excellent for this sort of thing,
while the various “Process” emulsions will also give good re-
sults, especially where particularly snappy, contrasty results
In printing from these enlarged negatives, the whole vast
range of printing and enlarging papers is available, making the
choice of a printing surface a matter for individual decision.
However, it may well be remembered that the rougher surfaced
papers are decidedly the best for this use. Perhaps the best
results come through the use of the so-called “silk-finish” or
“linen-finish” papers, on a buff stock.
Sometimes it happens that one wants to enlarge scenes from
his older films, which are often scratched from much use. In
this case, the best thing to do is to clip out the selected frame,
and make the enlargement with an ordinary, vertical “still”
enlarger, using a glycerine sandwich. By this means the various
abrasions on the film base can be almost completely concealed.
This is done by immersing the film in a liquid of the same
refractive index as that of the film base and gelatine-emulsion;
in this case, either glycerine or turpentine.
The so-called “liquid sandwich” is made this way. Pour a
little pool of the liquid — in this instance, let us say glycerine
— upon the bottom glass of the negative-carrier of your
enlarger. Then lower your strip of film — not more than
four or five frames long — into this pool, emulsion
down, until all of it is in absolute contact with the
glass and the liquid. Then pour another pool of glycerine out
on top of the film, and slowly lower the cover-glass upon it.
This completes the “ sandwich,” which should then be placed
in the carrier of the enlarger and used. Obviously, it is suited
only to use in a vertical enlarger. Inasmuch as the film is so
small, and can hardly fill the full area of the carrier, it is a
good idea to place a mask over it, to cut unwanted light and
prevent fogging of the plate or paper upon which the enlage-
ment is being made.
T HE November issue of Bell & Howell’s wonderfully interest-
ing monthly publication, Filmo Topics, should be very
worthwhile to the users of 16 mm. cameras. This publication
will be mailed free to anybody who simply writes to the Bell
& Howell company at 1848 Larchmont Avenue, Chicago. It
is a splendid little publication, packed with useful and inter-
ing ideas and information. The contents of the November
FILMING AN ARCTIC EPIC, THOMAS B. SWEENEY, JR.
The annual seal hunt off the coast of Labrador.
YOUR THANKSGIVING PARTY IN MOVIES. How to produce
family gathering films of lasting value.
STILLS FROM YOUR MOVIE FILMS.
CHRISTMAS CARDS FOR MOVIE MAKERS. Several ideas
used by Filmo owners.
TITLING YOUR FILMS. 2. Preparing title cards for filming
— various methods illustrated and explained.
CHRISTMAS GIFT SUGGESTIONS. What the movie maker
expects of Santa Claus.
ACTION AT THE APERTURE, JOSEPH A. DUBRAY. No. 1 1 of
the “Facts about Filmo” series, explaining the operation
of the intermittent mechanism of the Filmo Projector.
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS, JOSEPH A. DUBRAY.
AT YOUR DEALER
DREM PRODUCTS CORPORATION
152 West 42nd Street New York City, New York
are optically accurate
effective » » » » »
Kino-Hypar f:2.7 and f:3, 35 to 100 mm.
focal lengths. Simple in design . . . consists
of only three lenses . . . affords microscopic
definition in the image. Free from flare or
coma. Fine covering power.
Telestar f:4.5, 4 Vs to 1 3 V 2 ." focal lengths —
an ideal telephoto series for long distance
shots and closeups . . . excels because of
practical absence of distortion.
Cinegor f:2 and f:2.5, a Superspeed series;
ideal for work under unfavorable light
A new catalog listing the complete line ef
Goerz Lenses and Accessories will be mailed
C.P.GOERZ AMERICAN OPTICAL CO.
317 EAST 34™ ST.
NEW YORK CITY
H ERE we see Colonel Wm. C. Stuber, President of the Eastman Kodak Company, in the garden of his
home at Rochester, N. Y., making movies of his grandchildren, Marjorie and William James Stuber,
with his Cine-Kodak.
(Continued from Page 37)
prints to show. “Since then, I’ve been learning more and more
about my new hobby, and enjoying it more with each mistake
and each success. Arthur Hornblow has shared my dark-room
with me, and together we’ve spent hours working with our
enlarger, trying to get new effects and new compositions from
■our old negatives, trying new papers, new formulas, and every-
thing else that a couple of enthusiastic amateurs can think of.
“I’ve become quite rabid on the subject of making big prints
from small negatives. And why not, after all? If your camera
will give you a really first-class negative, and you take suffi-
cient pains in enlarging, you can not only get as good an en-
larged picture as though you had used a big camera in the
first place, but often a decidedly better one, for in enlarging
you have almost unlimited possibilities of control. Besides,
the enlargement will give the picture a certain artistic soft-
ness that cannot be imitated in a contact print.
“Besides, there is so much in favor of using a small camera
in the first place. For one thing, you can, with a ‘Leica,’
■use regular motion picture film, which gives you the identical
Panchromatic emulsions that the professional cinematographer
uses, and which are not available in any other form. Then, too,
you can use a small camera in so many places where you abso-
lutely cannot use a big one. This is something that should com-
mend the small camera not only to amateurs, but to profession-
als, as well. Since I’ve had my little camera, I’ve been religiously
preaching that idea to still men on my pictures; but al-
though many of them have individually and personally agreed
with me, I can’t say that my arguments have made any great
impression upon the official conduct of the studio still de-
partments! But I did have one wonderful opportunity for
proving my contentions. That was on Fox’s submarine pic-
ture, ‘Men without Women.’ This film, you know, was made
with the co-operation of the U. S. Navy, who placed several
•destroyers and submarines at our disposal. One sequence was
actually photographed inside a submarine, under water. Now,
•even in the biggest of subs, space is distinctly at a premium —
and this wasn’t by any means one of the big ones. So there
was no room for the big 8x10 cameras of the still men; but
it was easy enough to slip the little ‘Leica’ into my pocket
and snap as many pictures as I wanted. I took the roll home
with me when we quit the location, developed it, and made
some really fine enlargements from it. Then I was able to ex-
hibit them to the still crew, as definite proof of the value of a
tiny camera like that in emergencies on a movie-set. The boys
were so enthusiastic that they finally persuaded me to let them
have the negatives of those pictures, and I’ve since understood
that prints from them went out as part of the regular set of
production stills on the picture.
“While I’ve not yet taken up 16mm. movie-making (though
I’m getting nearer to it every day), I believe that such small
still-film cameras as the ‘Leica’ are the answer to the
amateur cinematographer’s need for stills to go with his movies.
They are so small, so simple to operate, and will produce such
excellent enlargements that I don’t see how they can be
left out of an amateur movie-maker’s outfit.
“Besides, these tiny still-film cameras can be carried about
with one almost everywhere, without being noticeable or
burdensome. And if you carry a tiny camera such as this about
with you regularly, you will soon find yourself seeing the
world with an entirely different eye. You will be constantly
seeing pictures in the ordinary scenes and happenings of daily
life. Thus you will find yourself changing from just another
snapshooter into, well, hardly an artist, but certainly into some-
one who has the desire to make his prints really count as
pictures, rather than mere records. You’ll begin to think
lighting, chiaroscuro, and composition in connection with even
the most ordinary snapshots, just as the studio cinematographers
have to; and you’ll be thinking, not only of the individual
subjects as potential pictures, but of the viewpoints and con-
ditions which will make them the best pictures. And once
your thought gets started in that direction, it rests solely with
you to make your pictures really worthy pictorially.
“You can say much the same about enlarging, too, for
with the possibilities you have of control, through using only
part of the negative, dodging, and double-printing, you have
November, 1 930
New Bell & Howell Bright Screen
F ROM the Bell & Howell engineering laboratories has come a
remarkable new screen, which is now ready for delivery. Its
unprecedented reflective power and its fine texture make it
ideal for projecting Kodacolor pictures, and it also gives black
and white films a new rich beauty. It is surprisingly light in
weight, making for easy handling and transporting.
This dual purpose screen has a double frame. The outer
frame is attractively finished in brown walnut. On the narrow,
black finished inner frame, the fine textured, projection sur-
face is mounted. For use, the inner frame is easily unsnapped,
lifted out, reversed, and replaced. Then, when the show is
over, the inner frame is removed and replaced with its projec-
tion surface facing in for protection from dust, dirt and abra-
sion when in storage.
Two swinging feet on the base support the screen upon a
table, and may be turned to lie against the frame for compact
The projection surface is a composition of several metallic
elements in extremely finely powdered form, held in suspen-
sion in a binding solution and applied to a 14-gauge sheet
aluminum base by a special Bell & Howell developed process.
When necessary, this surface may be dusted lightly with clean,
soft cheese-cloth. Should the surface, after long use, become
unduly scratched or marred, the aluminum sheet may be re-
moved from its frame and refinished at the Bell & Howell
factory at nominal cost.
>rgwH?l B ^ F2a
M I I ON BY
MITCHELL CAMERA CORPORATION
665 NORTH ROBERTSON BOUIEVARD
WEST HOLLYWOOD CALIF.
1222 Guaranty Bldg.,
Gentlemen : Please find enclosed three dollars
(Foreign rates additional), for one year’s subscription
a chance of making real pictures out of even rather ordinary
negatives. And, too, the business of making the enlarged
prints is such good sport. You can work over your enlargement
just as a painter works over his picture, until you get exactly
the effect that you want; you can put your own personality
into your pictures, almost as truly as though you drew or
painted them. People talk about the lack of control that the
photographer has, in comparison to the painter, and of his
lack of color: yet these same people will often revel in the
beauty of a monochrome etching, or of a page of rare printing.
To me, a fine photograph is equally a thing of beauty. For
years, I have collected rare books, simply for the esthetic
pleasure the beauty of their craftsmanship and printing con-
veys; now, since I have begun to learn something about
photography, I have found that a perfectly made photographic
print has the same exquisite, singing beauty that distinguishes
a perfectly printed page, or a fine etching. Pictorial beauty is
the same, no matter what medium is used to express it. So
if there is anything that I, as an amateur, can say, it is that
I wish that more of my fellow-amateurs could realize the
possibilities latent in their family still-cameras, and in their
most ordinary surroundings. If they’d only look for pictures in
their every day life, they’d find themselves surrounded by
pictorial beauty all the time.”
to the American Cinematographer, to begin with the
issue of , 1 9
In Club with:
— ... 3.90
Please make all remittances payable to
THE AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER
Making Multicolor Two Miles Up
Elmer G. Dyer, A. S. C., Makes Unusual Aerial Color Films
by WM. STULL, A. S. C.
E LMER G. DYER, A. S. C., one of Hollywood’s most outstand-
ing aerial cinematographers, has been making tests for
Multicolor in the air, and to top off his aerial tests with this
color film he has just shot scenes at an elevation of ten
thousand feet, the first time natural color has been shot at such
an elevation, as far as we of this publication can determine.
Some of the observations of Mr. Dyer, who is under contract
to Caddo, whose ally is Multicolor, are extremely interesting
“I’m glad that I’ve been able to do it,” says Dyer, “not
only because it is something I’ve been wanting to do ever
since I started flying, but because the results have justified
the confidence that Howard Hughes has shown in me in let-
ting me have a free hand with these experiments.
“Black and white photography — no matter how perfect —
can never give a true impression of the beauty of the scenes
that are constantly revealing themselves to the eye of the
flyer. You can capture the form of the various cloud-forma-
tions, of course, but you can’t get the full beauty of it over
without color. Black-and-white photography can suggest the
beauty of some scenes you see above the clouds during the
daytime, but it’s a total loss when it comes to the beautiful,
pastel tints of a sunset or sunrise above the clouds. Besides,
in pictures of aerial ‘dogfights’ — like those in ‘Hell’s Angels’
or ‘The Dawn Patrol’ — think of the pictorial possibilities of
color, with a dozen or so brilliantly colored ships manoeuver-
ing against the sky and great masses of snowy clouds. Then,
too, the coloring will make it much easier for the audience to
distinguish the individual ‘ships’ flown by the various char-
“In our tests, we put the camera in one plane, and took
off, while another ship — a Waco with a brilliant blue body,
red-striped, and orange wings — went up with us to stunt a
bit for my camera. The plan was that as soon as we got
above the clouds the Waco would come alongside us, fly be-
side us for a few moments, half-roll onto its back, hang there
a moment, and then drive straight down to the clouds, so that
I could follow it with my camera, and get some shots of the
earth through the clouds. As usual, the manoeuvre was to be
repeated several times, so that we could get plenty of inter-
esting footage. After that, there were to be a few loops, lm~
melmanns, Wing-overs, and a spin or two, all of which would
give us some plenty interesting action, and give us a good idea
of the use of color for such work.
“Well, things went according to schedule for a while. We
filmed our own take-off, and then got a good shot of the
other ship getting off, too. Then we climbed, and got into
position. The first half-roll and dive went off beautifully;
so did the second; but then the ship’s engine went dead on
him, and he had to make a forced landing in a beet field sev-
eral miles from the airport. We circled around, as we expected
that he’d be joining us in a few minutes, but he soon signalled
that we’d have to go on without him. I was sorry to lose
my subject — but otherwise I was plenty glad to get away;
I was dressed for high-altitude flying, and it was awfully hot
down there, a scant few hundred feet above the ground!
“But, as we started to climb, I got more and more thankful
for my heavy, fleece-lined flying-suit, my heavy mittens, and
the big leather face-mask I was wearing. By the time we got
up above the clouds the altimeter registered 10,000 feet, and
the bottom had dropped out of the thermometer. I was cold,
even through my warm garments; and the oil in my camera
got so cold and thick that the motor would no longer pull it;
I had to crank it myself. And if you think that an ordinary,
silenced camera turns hard down on the ground — just try it
two miles up in the air, with the oil nearly frozen stiff! If
(Continued on Page 50)
Cloud formation 10,000 feet in the air
November, 1 930
Making “Whoopee” With “Inkies”
(Continued from Page 33)
bare, skeleton cactus plants etched against a marvelous sky
of blue, the pure white of the girl’s bridal dress — all blending
perfectly into one extraordinary composition. Nothing is over-
done. The general lighting was cut down in this scene due
to the closeness of the shot. Lights consisted of 24" sun
spots, ten duces and six rifles.
Undoubtedly one of the most beautiful shots ever made
with color photography is the Mission Arch scene. The arch,
silhouetted against a wondrous blue-green sky, forms a picture
of rare, haunting charm. Lights from the ranch house filter
through nearby trees to lay soft traceries of white upon the
sombre brown of the arch. Figures clad in pink pour through
the entrance, their arms brimming with gorgeous desert blos-
soms. The lighting effects ring up a grand score here. Full
lighting on this set consisted of a total load of 12,860 amps,
including sixty-eight 5 unit strips, as general overhead lights,
one hundred and two 24" 5 kilowatt sun spots and twenty-
five 36" sun spots. In order to emphasize the beautiful tones
of green in the scene two 36" Mole-Richardson sun arcs, three
24" Mole-Richardson sun arcs and eight 80 amp rotary spots
were used. Arcs were employed here due to the fact that
the arc ray contains a greenish hue which is highly effective
on green substances, therefore preferable, so long as it does
not spill over and hit white, blue or red.
Many scenes taken on the Indian reservation set are par-
ticularly attractive. The instance where Cantor smokes the
peace pipe with the chief contains a somber beauty — a compo-
sition of browns, ochres, oranges and reds. The total load
here was 7,535 amps, consisting of thirty-eight 5 unit strips,
thirty 18" sun spots, one hundred and one 24" spn spots and
five 36" sun spots.
Introducing the grand spectacle, an Indian chieftain in full
regalia stands silhouetted against an evening sky, traced with
wisps of clouds tinted a delicate rose by the setting sun. This
is perhaps the simplest, yet by all odds the most impressive
scene in the entire production.
Comes the spectacle — a rhythm of moving color pouring
down a great ramp, — white, cream, black, pale, salmon, orange,
deep red, brown, green, blue — immense feathery, colored
plumes, head-dresses for beautiful women astride stalwart
horses. A magnificent scene illuminated with a total load of
18,170 amps consisting of one hundred and twenty-two 5
unit strips, one hundred and fifty 24" 5 K W sun spots,
twenty-eight 36" 10 K W sun spots. On the backing thirty
36" 10 K W sun spots were used.
Throughout the picture sky vistas were greatly featured in
backgrounds. This called for a particular type of light which
was developed by Mole-Richardson, Inc., exclusively for this
production. Forty of these new lights, aptly called “sky lights’’
were manufactured. All sky backings in “Whoopee” were
lighted by these lamps, a 10,000 watt globe being used in
each lamp. A special feature of the “sky light” is that it
eliminates all light circles and dark rings. The beautiful cloud
effects in the sky scenes were produced by bringing light up
through the use of rheostats on 1 0 KW Sun spots.
“Whoopee” is a wonderful achievement in color photog-
raphy and lighting effects. It sets a new high mark for
excellence in color productions.
Emery Huse, A. S. C.
E MERY HUSE, another of the new Associate members of the
American Society of Cinematographers, was born in New-
buryport, Massachusetts, February 24, 1897. He was educated
in Washington, D. C. in the public grammar schools, Central
High School and George Washington University. When the
war broke out Mr. Huse entered the Air Service. In January,
1919 he entered the Physics Department of the Eastman
Kodak Company Research Laboratory where he remained until
August of 1 926.
At that time he was tranferred to the Motion Picture Film
Division of the Eastman Kodak Company in Rochester where
he remained for two years. Then he was sent to Hollywood
in March, 1928 for technical service work. At present he is
Manager of the West Coast Division, Motion Picture Film De-
partment of the Eastman Kodak Company, and is the Technical
Editor of the American Cinematographer, as well as one of
the members of the Board of Editors of the Cinematographic
I N THE populous Villette district of Paris, Leon Brezillon, presi-
dent of the French exhibitors association, is erecting a large
hall, which will be fully equipped for presenting sound-films
on a wide screen. For the purposes of the enterprise, which
is considerable, the Societe Secretan Palace has been founded,
with an initial capital of four million francs. M. Brezillon will
be president and managing director of the company.
Nagel Cameras With Hugo Meyer Lenses
W E NOTE with interest that the Nagel Cameras are
equipped with Hugo Meyer lenses which, to our way of
thinking, represents as desirable a combination as it is possible
to obtain. The Nagel cameras are characterized by their rugged
yet light construction, their beauty of appearance and their
ease of operation. And the fact that they are matched by a
series of Hugo Meyer lenses makes the combination one that
is highly desirable and one that should be very efficient.
Cine-Kodak Coes on Alaskan Location
(Continued from Page 39)
Concentrator microphone of R-K-0 used on “Danger Lights”.
can metropolis, for while
there were rather more than
five hundred automobiles in
the place, the city boasted
exactly eight and three-
quarter miles of road for
them to use!
Alaska is in many ways
a land of extreme contrasts,
for while you will often see
the most primitive of fron-
tier conditions, they will in-
variably be hand-in-hand
with the most modern as-
pects of civilization. Fre-
quently, for instance, the
fisher-folk will be found
living in the simplest of
frame homes, sometimes
hardly more than shacks —
but many of them are equip-
ped with the most modern
of radios! Incidentally, the
larger canneries have their
own radiophone systems for communicating with their
"brailers,” as they call the boats that bring the salmon in from
the traps. Another interesting contrast — and one that is easier to
photograph — is that shown by the varying systems of transpor-
tation. For on the one hand you will see proverbial dog-teams,
and on the other, the fastest and most modern of airplanes.
Aircraft, by the way, served us in good stead in our work, for
they brought us to many remote, and otherwise inaccessible
locations in only a few hours of flying. The major air services
in Southeastern Alaska are operated by the Alaska-Washing-
ton Airways, who use the familiar Lockheed “Vega” cabin
monoplanes, equipped with pontoons, which make all of
Alaska’s many coves, lakes and rivers ideal landing-fields.
There is a decided satisfaction, by the way, in flying over such
country in a seaplane, knowing that there is a landing field
under you at all times! And it is certainly from the air that
Alaska is seen at its best. For the whole beautiful coastline
is stretched out below you, with its hundreds of islands,
mountainous and wooded, its verdant mainland, dotted with
fresh-water lakes where a fisherman can bag a limit catch of
the sportiest fish in the world in an hour or two, and the blue
Model dairy which was once a
Napoleon gave to
water of the famous Inside Passage stretching endlessly away
into the distance. On many of the islands there are numerous
black bear, and it is amusing to see the old Mother bear on
the edge of some stream teaching her cubs how to catch salmon.
Their method testifies rather plainly as to the size of the
Alaskan salmon-runs, for they merely wade out into the river
until the water is two or three feet deep, and scoop up the
passing fish with their paws, and toss them onto the shore.
This makes an unusually interesting picture, but it demands a
long-focus lens, for Mother Bear is not picture-minded!
Alaskan weather, unlike the people, is not always so ready
to co-operate with the photographer. In fact, nearly every
day that we spent in the country was more or less rainy or
cloudy. But, if the weather bureau wouldn’t co-operate with
us, we could at least take advantage of the prevailing weather
to get pictures of the country in its natural state. This is
something that any amateur can do; wherever he goes, in fact,
he should do so, for, after all, a personal travel film is not
intended to show the country the way it should be, but the
way it is. Therefore, if you go right ahead, and shoot the
country as it presents itself to you, rather than waiting for a
theoretically “ideal” condition, you will find, as I did, that
your scenes of the natural moods of the country are far more
interesting than those sent out by the steamship companies
to lure tourists to an ap-
parent land of “eternal sun-
shine.’’ Did you ever notice
that most of the advertising
pictures seem to have been
made when the sun was at
its brightest? But for a per-
sonal record, I found that
filming the country in its
varying natural moods was
far more pleasing and satis-
factory than just so many
beautiful sunlit scenes. The
ever-changing clouds and
fog-banks made an unend-
ing variety of beautiful com-
positions. Between them, the
mountains and heavily-
wooded hills, splashed with
foaming waterfalls, make
building on the magnificent estate
Josephine near Paris.
(Continued on Page 49)
At Wrangel, Alaska, during the shooting of the “Silver Horde”.
New Plunger Lock For Victor
Model 5 Camera
V ICTOR has added another refinement to the Model 5
Visual Focusing Camera. The Turret Front of the Model
5 is equipped with 3 knurled aluminum shifting pins which
make it possible for the head to be rotated without touching
any of the lenses.
One of these pins has been converted into a plunger lock,
which prevents accidental or unintentional shifting of the
turret, although it does not, of course, have any effect on
the quality of the pictures made with the Camera.
The lock operates on the “push-pull” principle. To unlock,
pull out the pin tip. When lenses have been rotated to the
desired position, simply push the pin tip back in, thus lock-
ing the turret rigidly in place.
The Victor Model 5 was the first 16 mm. American Camera
to be equipped with built-in Visual Focusing. Victor prism
Focusing is unique in that the Focusing Finder may be instantly
adjusted to the eyesight of the individual using the Camera
— a feature which promotes accuracy and which has not yet
been incorporated in any other 16 mm. Camera.
Another feature of this method of focusing to which the
manufacturer calls particular attention is that the focused im-
age is exact aperture size and shows all of the field taken in
by the lens. The ground surface of the focusing prism is ex-
actly the same distance from the lens as is the film when
pictures are being made, an arrangement that obviates the
necessity of using an internal compensating lens in the focus-
ing system. In other words, the eye sees in the Victor finder
the exact field that is transmitted by the lens to the film.
No camera can ke tetter tkan its lens. All
Carl CeissTessars ensure perfect definition
and krilliancy, even at full aperture,
and results will not t<
>e impaired ty
tese are only a few reasons
wky Carl Cciss Tessar L,
ave unt versa
J E-N A
CARL ZEISS, INCORPORATED
*35 Fifth A ve v New York -s- 728 So. Hill St., Los Angeles
"IT HE EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY has just announced a
new projector which is just what hundreds of youngsters
have been waiting for, and which should be one of the best
Christmas presents any boy or girl could get this year. It is
the Kodatoy, which is described by the Eastman Company as
a dependable motion picture projector that any youngster can
thread up and run.
The weight of this new projector, designed for the kiddies,
is five and a half pounds. Footage is 100 feet of 16 mm.
safety film, equal to 250 feet of standard 35 mm. film. It
has a 34 mm. projection lens and is said to be easy to focus.
At La Carenne, just outside Paris, a new sound-film studio
has been opened, which is to be let to producers. It is
insulated by an American (Banroc) system, and equipped with
Peterson-Poulsen sound recorders.
Bell & Howell Company Awarded Medal By
Chicago National Air Races Officials
T HE BELL & HOWELL Company has been awarded a bronze
commemorative medal in recognition of co-operation in
connection with the record-breaking National Air Races held
in Chicago recently. The medal was awarded by the officers
and directors of the Chicago Air Race Corporation.
Prior to the races, a Filmo Projector was used to stimulate
interest in the coming aviation events by showing movies of
last year’s Air Races all through the Chicago metropolitan area.
These pictures were shown several times daily during a 30-day
period to various organizations with splendid results.
At the Air Races themselves, 16 mm. motion picture cam-
eras were very much in evidence. All over the closely crowded
seats spectators were to be seen using their Filmo movie cam-
eras to make motion pictures of the air events. Aviation will
unquestionably open up a vast field for making interesting
November, 1 930
TRUEBALL TRIPOD HEADS
For follow-up shot*
are known for their
smoothness of operation,
equal tension on all
movements and being: un-
affected by temperature.
The Model A is made
for Amateur motion pic-
ture cameras and also
fits the Standard Still
Trueball tripod heads
are unexcelled for sim-
plicity, accuracy and
speed of operation.
The Hoefner four-inch
Iris and Sunshade com-
bination is also a supe-
The Model B is for Bell
& Howell and Mitchell
Cameras and their re-
The handle is tele-
scopic and adjustable to
5319 SANTA MONICA BOULEVARD
GLadstone 0243 LOS ANGELES, CALIF.
Keep Step with the Professionals by Reading The
Technical Cinematic Magazine of the Motion Pic-
Published in Hollywood by the American Society
of Cinematographers, the leading professional cam-
eramen of the world.
You cannot afford to be without it.
For Amateurs — Service department, special tech-
nical articles by the world’s greatest authorities on
r Fill in and Mail Today]
1222 Guaranty Building,
Gentlemen: Please find enclosed three dollars
($4.00 for foreign rate) for one year's subscription
to the American Cinematographer, to begin
with the issue of 1930.
“Laco Liteing” the “Whoopee” premiere
I T IS the night of an opening in Hollywood. Thousands of
curious men, women and children jam the streets for blocks
about the theatre. It may be the opening of any big picture
at any theatre . . . the evening will be the same. The picture
has been publicized . . . the director, the stars — even the fea-
tured players and perhaps the author . . . everyone is agog
over the occasion. All are gathered to see the stars as they
step from their expensive cars in their expensive clothes and
walk through the glare of the great lights into the theatre.
There is one thought in the minds of the vast crowds . . .
it is to see the stars.
But — back in the dark are a group of men who are never
considered. The average person in the great crowd never
gives them a thought. They are the men behind the big lights
that make it possible for the crowd to see the stars — they are
what, in the language of the studios are called, “juicers.”
These men are never given a line of publicity — but what
would we do without them either in the studio or at the
So — we tell you now that William O. Mellor, the chief
electrician at the Samuel Goldwyn Studio was everywhere on the
night of the opening of “Whoopee.” He was directing the
exterior lighting and had under him a great force of able men
who never even dream of getting their names in the papers
But they did a good job. They made it possible for the stars
to be seen. And, as the above picture of the event shows,
he, his men and Laco Lites made a definite impression.
W. E. Wins Patent Suit
I N THE first legal decision rendered on Patents 1707545
and 1734624, Judge Raymond of the U. S. District Court,
Western District of Michigan Southern Division sitting at
Grand Rapids has ruled that these patents are valid and have
been infringed upon.
The action was brought by the Western Electric Company,
which is sustained by the legal decision against the Kersten
Radio Equipment Co., Inc., of Kalamazoo, Michigan. The
patents cover the Western Electric loud speaker 555-W used
for talking pictures and the diaphragm of this loud speaker
The decision derives additional significance from the fact
that after Western Electric filed its suit in the fall of 1929,
the Kersten Company offered for the consideration of the
court another design of loud speaker modified in an attempt
to avoid infringement. Judge Raymond’s decision holds that
both designs of Kersten’s speakers are an infringement of the
Western Electric Company’s patents.
October, 1 930
AMERICAN C I N E M ATOC R A P H E R
Cine-Kodak Goes on Alaskan Location
(Continued from Page 46)
for a diversified reel of scenes. If one is ambitious, and rises
early, there is always a composition of cloud-and-seascape that
is worthy of a few feet of film, for the sun rises very early,
and sets very late in these northern latitudes. We passed
another steamer at about nine o’clock one night; it was still
twilight, and by using the F : 1 .9 lens wide open, I secured a
most interesting picture of the ship, which though perfectly
timed, preserved the twilight atmosphere of the scene, and
even showed the incandescent lights in the main saloon of the
ship. On clear days (of which there really are a few), it is
possible to get some beautiful sunsets at .about ten-thirty in
But Alaska is not the only country which should be photo-
graphed in its native moods, rather than under the so-called
“ideal” conditions. Every country should be. The tropics are
an equally outstanding example. One often hears both pro-
fessional and amateur photographers complaining of the ex-
tremely contrasty light conditions found in the tropics and the
south seas. To my mind, these contrasty lightings are just as
much a part of the country as the palm trees and coral. They
are natural moods of the country, and should be photographed
as such. Of course, this does not mean that one must resign
himself to an absolute whitewash-and-soot type of picture,
but neither should he go to the other extreme, and try for a
perfectly-balanced film. Tropical sunlight, snow-white
beaches, and heavily-shaded cocoanut groves are not conducive
to a uniformly exposed negative, but they can be so photo-
graphed as to strike a happy medium between actuality and
unreal, photographic perfection. By filming such subjects
either early or late in the day, with long cross-lights, a very
pleasant result can be obtained.
Similarly, what south sea reel can be complete without at
least one of the torrential down pours that are so much a
part of the country? In photographing one of these, a dark
foreground should be used, by shooting through an open
doorway or arch, into the dripping background, which should
be rendered in a higher key. In such subjects, as in the moist
weather of Alaska, color filters should almost always be used,
not so much with the idea of securing better color rendition,
but to aid in securing definite contrasts on days when the light
is soft and diffuse.
The most interesting thing about photography is, to me,
the fact that, whether one is an amateur or professional, or
using a still or a movie camera, every day, every scene, brings
something new to be learned. And this trip to Alaska taught
me two things: the tremendous enjoyment of taking my Cine-
Kodak on location with me, and the fact that the natural
moods of a country are invariably more interesting as photo-
graphic subjects than the so-called “ideal conditions” for which
most of us so foolishly wait.
What is HOME
without a . . .
ELMER G. DYER
Aerial Photography Since 1918
Phone HE. 8116
Phone GL. 7507 Hours 9 to 5
Also by Appointment
Dr. G. Floyd Jackman
706 Hollywood First National Building
Hollywood Blvd. at Highland Ave.
HARRY PERRY, A.S.C.
OXford 1908 HEmpstead 1128
HARVEY Wm. PRIESTER
CAMERA INSURANCE A SPECIALTY
510 Guaranty Building
6331 Hollywood Blvd., Hollywood, California
Tel: GLadstone 4811
FOR RENT OR SALE
Speed Movement — Fully Equipped — 5 Matched Pan
Tachar f.2.3 Lenses — 4-3-2-40 and 35 — two 1,000-
ft. and four 400-ft. Magazines — Friction Head for Pan-
ning — Gear Box for Different Speeds — Baby Tripod and
High Hat — Cases for all with Yale locks.
Glenn R. Kershner
c/o A. s. C.
Mitchell and A K A C H A C
Bell & Howell V_ A/ VI L KAj
SALES and RENTALS
J. R. Lockwood
1108 North Lillian Way
HOLLYWOOD, CALIF. "LOCKCAMERA"
Have you ordered your Cinematographic
November, 1 930
S.M.P.E. Offers Film Rafio
(Continued from Page 16)
Among the papers read at the meeting were: "Meeting
Sound Film Competition Abroad,” by C. J. North and N. D.
Golden of the Motion Picture Division, Bureau of Foreign and
Domestic Commerce. ‘‘Microphone Concentrators In Picture
Production,” by Carl Dreher, RKO Studios. “Some Observa-
tions on Stereoscopic Projection,” by J. B. Taylor, Research
Laboratory, General Electric Company. “International Rela-
tions in the Sound Picture Industry,” by Dr. F. S. Irby, As-
sociate Editor, Electronics. “Some New Studio Recording
Equipment,” by W. P. Dutton and S. Read, RCA Victor Com-
pany. "Dubbing and its Relation to Sound Picture Production,”
by Ceorge Lewin, Paramount Publix Corp. “Some Suggestions
for Eliminating Fire Hazard from the Handling and Storage
of Film in Laboratories,” by R. C. Hubbard, Consolidated Film
Laboratories. “Double Toning of Motion Picture Film,” by
J. I. Crabtree and W. Marsh, Kodak Research Laboratories.
“Condensor and Carbon Microphones — Their Construction and
Use,” by W. C. Jones, Bell Telephone Laboratories. “Improve-
ments in Dynamic Speakers,” by I. B. Serge, Utah Radio
Products Corp. “A Damped Diaphragm Reproducer,” by
Rudolph Miehling, Universal Sound System. “Aiding the The-
atre Patron Who Is Hard of Hearing,” by F. H. Graham, Elec-
trical Research Products, Inc. “The Photoflash Lamp,” by R.
E. Farnham, General Electric Company, Cleveland. “A Truck
Mounted Laboratory For Diagnosis of Theatre Acoustic De-
fects,” by V. A. Schlenker, Vitaphone Corp. “Some Causes For
Variations in the Light and Steadiness of High Intensity
Carbons,” by D. B. Joy and A. C. Downes, Research Labora-
tories, National Carbon Company, Cleveland, Ohio. “Require-
ments For A Practical System of Three Color Subtractive
Cinematography,” by Palmer Miller and P. D. Brewster,
Brewster Color Film Corp. “Principles and Processes of Photog-
raphy in Natural Colors,” by Glenn E. Matthews, Eastman
Kodak Research Laboratories. “Recent Developments in RCA
Photophone Portable Recording Equipment,” by P. M. Robillard
and E. B. Lyford, RCA Photophone, N. Y. “Trend of Lamp
Development and Operation in Motion Picture Projectors
Employing 16 mm. film,” by V. J. Roper and H. I. Wood, Gen-
eral Electric Co. “Cinematographic Analysis of Mechanical
Energy Expenditure in the Sprinter,” by C. A. Morrison and
W. O. Fenn. “Cinematography With the Laryngoscope,” by
C. A. Morrison, Eastman Teaching Films. “Industry Adopts
the Motion Picture Camera,” by A. H. Mogensen, Assistant
Editor, Factory and Industrial Management.
Church Paper Conducts Motion
S UCH extensive interest has been evidenced in the use of
motion pictures in the church field, that the widely known
religious magazine, The Expositor, has opened a questions
and answers department to take care of inquiries from clergy-
men who desire information as to how to employ movies to
the best advantage in their work.
This department is conducted by Ford Hicks, Vocational
Advisor of the Bell Cr Howell Company, Chicago. Letters of
inquiry have been received in considerable number from all
parts of the country.
In addition to the questions and answers, The Expositor
makes it a practice to carry, each month, a general article,
usually about 1000 words in length, on some interesting phase
of movies in the church field. Practically all of the material
has to do with 16 mm. pictures.
J. M. Ramsey, Managing Editor of The Expositor, is him-
self a motion picture enthusiast of genuine attainments. He
has written a number of articles on cinematography which
have appeared in photographic publications, and he has also
at least one movie appliance invention to his credit.
A Letter from Hollywood
(Continued from Page 20)
"Nope, just starting a French picture,” says the casting
director, and the gang rush to the furnished rooms and apply
the scissors and return with the nicest French beards in the
world — then they eat — for if they are hired they get seven
and a half bucks and that means a lot of ham and egg sand-
wiches out here. You can find any type of beard in the world
right on Sunset or Hollywood Boulevard any day you go out.
And speaking of eating. You can’t beat this town for
originality and color. They have sandwich shops here where
you drive up in your car and a pretty girl dressed in bare legs,
slippers, and the most gorgeous yellow pajamas comes tripping
gayly and laughingly to your car and takes your order. Then
she brings your sandwiches and your coffee, and you can’t
eat for looking at the pajamas and what they contain. I’ve
figured it all out, though. The other night I rode up to one
of these places with a friend in his car. And you know, John,
I stared so hard and long at the girl I forgot to eat, and when
we left and I handed back my tray I gave her back the sandwich
untouched. There’s the answer, John. Look at the money
they can make selling those same sandwiches maybe a dozen
times a night. Well, as long as they can get away with it,
more power to them. But them girls sure do knock your eye
out — to say nothing of the pajamas.
But — getting back to getting a job. I think you had better
stay back in Pittsburgh for a while. I’m figuring on growing a
beard before long, only you know how I never could grow
any hair on my chin. Well, that is about all for this time,
John. Next time I want to tell you about the Hollywood cow-
boys who clutter up Cahuenga boulevard so you can hardly
get by without slashing your shins on a spur.
As always, your determined friend,
Making Multicolor Two Miles Up
(Continued from Page 44)
that isn’t enough, try using a friction trip-head in the same
condition at the same time!
“But in spite of these difficulties, we got our picture, sev-
eral beautiful shots of the tossing billows of the clouds below
us, and, finally, a shot of the sun as it sank below the clouds
That two-mile-high sunset, I think, was one of the most
beautiful scenes I’ve ever shot. There was the great, orange
globe of the sun sinking below the horizon; the billowy ocean
clouds in the foreground, gold where the sunlight hit the tops
of the clouds, purple in the shadows; while above and around
us the sky was a flaming mass of pink and gold and crimson.
Such a scene could never have been made in monochrome, but
in Multicolor it seems just as beautiful in the projection-room
as it was that evening in the air.
“Then, for a final thrill — if we needed one, after the glory
of that sunset — came the dash back to earth. With the sun-
set, we knew that it would soon be pitch-dark below the
clouds, so our pilot simply shoved the stick forward, and dove
almost perpendicularly back to earth, through a hole in the
clouds, and down into the dark world below. We dropped
those ten thousand feet in about two minutes, levelled out,
and raced back to the field, to sink back to earth just as the
field landing-lights were turned on.
“The value of color cinematography for such scenes as these
is rather obvious, but it is equally valuable for less spectacular
work. For color gives a real sense of depth to aerial scenes.
If you are above the clouds, the glimpses you get of the earth
through the inevitable holes in the clouds makes you con-
scious of being really up in the air. If you are lower down,
and shooting obliquely at the earth, color makes things stand
out in their true relation. Not only do you feel that you are
up in a plane, but you find that you can distinguish the dif-
ferent objects below you.
November, 1 930
INDEX to ADVERTISERS
Bell & Howell Co 1, 35
Bredschneider, W. B 32
Brulatour, Inc., J. E 21
Boothe Company 27
Cinematographic Annual 30, 31
Composite Laboratories 32
Davidge, Roy.. 32
Drem Products Corp 41
Dunning Process Co 26
DuPont Pathe Film Mfg. Co Inside Front Cover
Dyer, Elmer 49
Eastman Kodak Co Inside Back Cover
Factor, Max 6
Fearless Camera Co 25
Coerz American Optical Co., C. P 41
Hoefner, Fred 48
Hollywood Camera Exchange -26, 28
Jackman, Dr. G. Floyd 49
Lakin Corp 5
Lockwood, J. R 49
Mitchell Camera Corp 43, Back Cover
Mole-Richardson, Inc 2
Moreno-Snyder Cine Corp., Ltd 25
Moviola Company 29
National Carbon Co 4
Perry, Harry 49
Priester, Harvey W 49
Scheibe, George H 32
Smith Cr Aller, Inc Inside Front Cover
Superior Engraving Co 28
Tanar Corporation 7, 19
Zeiss, Inc., Carl 47
The TRAIL AHEAD !
Don’t miss the December issue of the
American Cinematographer! Better
than ever! More Big Features! Be sure
Get Your Copy!
WANTED — Position: Young man 23 years, intelligent, steady and am-
bitious. earnestly desires opportunity to learn cinematography or allied
profession that will lead to same. Hours work or salary no object.
Go anywhere, anv time Address Robert Feagans, Walnut Creek, Calif.
WANTED — Position: Young man 22, intelligent, ambitious and very willing
to learn: desires to be assistant cameraman. Have good knowledge of
sound motion pictures. Have had experience with silent film as free-
lancer. Have had eight years of still photography. P. C. Vance, 760 So.
San Pedro St., Room 24, MA. 3 23 5, Los Angeles.
Rates: Four cents a word. Minimum charge, one dollar
YOUNG MAN seeks steady position under capable Cinematographer. Some
experience. Has Universal Camera. Not union. Willing to apply. CARL
NELSON, 164-12 110th Road. Jamaica, N. Y.
WANTED— MOTION PICTURE CAMERAS
WANTED — For cash, DeBrie. Pathe. Bell H Howell Standard cameras. Send
full description. Bass Camera Company, 179 West Madison Street. Chicago.
WANTED — From Globe-trotting cameramen, film of foreign countries. Ad-
dress Rex Gordon, Hollywood, Calif. Phone GRanite 693 3.
FOR SALE— CAMERAS
FOR SALE- — Five Mitchell cameras, each outfit complete. Prices range from
$2250 to $4500, according to age and added equipment. Hollywood
Camera Exchange. 1511 N. Cahuenga. Cable address Hocamex.
FOR SALE — Two Akeley cameras, each outfit complete. Price camera No. 44,
$600: No. 212, $1250. Hollywood Camera Exchange, 1511 N. Ca-
huenga. Cable address Hocamex.
FOR SALE — 2 complete Mitchell High Speed Outfits, $3 5 00.00 each. Special
price for purchaser of both. Write or phone Editor of CINEMATOGRAPHER.
FOR SALE OR RENT — -First Class Akeley Outfit complete. Phone GR-4274,
or write Dan B. Clark. A. S. C. office.
FOR SALE — Bell £S Howell Camera, 170 degree: three Lenses F 2 5. Iris.
Mitchell tripod, four magazines, steel cases. Park J. Ries. 1540 N.
Cahuenga Ave., GRanite 1185.
FOR SALE — Thalhammer Iris. 40mm. 50mm. 75mm F 3.5. Lenses in B. fcf H.
mounts. Park J. Ries, 1540 N. Cahuenga Ave., GRanite 1185.
FOR SALE OR RENT — Complete Mitchell Camera, latest equipment. Rea-
sonable. Harry Perry. Phone OX. 1908 or GR. 4274.
FOR SALE — Mitchell Speed Camera. Don B. Keyes, Phone HE 1841.
FOR SALE — Akeley outfit. $980.00. Wish to sell Akeley camera, 200 ft.
capacity: Akeley tripod for same, 4 magazines in separate case. 1 mag-
azine in camera, matched 2-inch F:3.5 Zeiss: matched 3-inch F.3.5 Goerz,
6-inch F:4.5 with finder lens: 12-inch Dallmeyer, F.5.6 with finder
lens. Mechanically O. K. Marfleet, Box 202, Rock Falls, 111.
FOR SALE— MISCELLANEOUS
FOR SALE — One Bell V Howell Cinemotor. Like new. Used for one picture.
J. R. Lockwood. 1108 N. Lillian Way GR-3177.
FOR SALE OR RENT — Mitchell Camera equipped for Sound. A1 Gilks,
HE- 1490 or A. S. C. Office. GR-4274.
FOR SALE — Lenses, Accessories, of all kinds, new and used. Bargains. Holly-
w'ood Camera Exchange, 1511 N. Cahuenga. Cable Address Hocamex.
FOR RENT— CAMERAS
FOR RENT — Three Mitchell High Speed Cameras. Equipped for sound. 1000-
Ft. Magazines. J. R. Lockwood, 1008 North Lillian Way. GR-3177.
FOR RENT — Eight Bell & Howell cameras, fast lenses, large finders. Mitchell
tripods. Park J. Ries, 15 40 N. Cahuenga Ave. GR-1185.
rOR RENT — Akeley camera outfit. Mitchell tripod. 6 magazines, equipped up
to 6 inch lenses. Park J. Ries, 1540 N. Cahuenga Ave. GRanite 1185.
FOR RENT — Mitchell Speed Camera, equipped for Sound. Phone Don B. Keyes.
FOR RENT — 2 Mitchell high speed cameras with latest 40. 5 0 and 75 mm.
Pan-Astro lenses. 1000 ft. magazines: loose head, tripod. Pliny Horne.
1318 N. Stanley, HO 7682 or GL 2791.
FOR RENT — One Mitchell Speed camera fully equipped for sound. 40.
5 0 and 7 5 mm. and 4 and 6 inch Pan Astro lens. Norman DeVol.
6507 D exel Ave. ORegon 7492.
FOR RENT— MISCELLANEOUS
FOR RENT — Cinemotors. One Mitchell and one Bell Cinemotors. J. R.
Lockwood, 1108 North Lillian Way. GR-3177.
FOR RENT — Two Mitchell Tiltheads, one with Bell 0 Howell adapter. J. R.
Lockwood, 1108 North Lillian Way. GR-3177.
FOR RENT- — Mitchell Motor. Also Mitchell Motor adapter. Mitchell and
Bell U Howell Cinemotors with counter and batteries. Park J. Ries.
1540 N. Cahuenga. GR 1185.
FOR RENT — Mitchell Gear Box with crank and shaft. Mitchell Motor: 1000
ft. magazines. Phone Donald B. Keyes, HE-1841.
FOR RENT — Mitchell friction tilthead with Bell 6S Howell adapter. J. R. Lock-
wood, 1108 N Lillian Way. GRanite 3177.
FOR RENT — Mitchell high speed gear box complete. Plinv Horne. 13 18
N. Stanley. HO 7682 or GL 2791.
November, 1 930
Co mplete Roster at Date of Publication
John W. Boyle
Daniel B. Clark
CHARLES C. CLARKE
JOHN ARNOLD -
Chas. G. Clarke
Ned Van Buren
Philip E. Rosen Fred W.
John F. Seitz
John W. Boyle
Arthur Webb, General Counsel
James Van Trees
Mr. Thomas A. Edison, Orange, N. J. Mr. George Eastman, Rochester, N. Y.
Mr. Albert S. Howell, Chicago
Mr. Emery Huse, Mr. Fred Gage, Dr. W. B. Rayton, Dr. C. E. K. Mees, Mr. Loyd A. Jones, Dr. V. B. Sease
Abel, David — Pathe.
Allen, Paul H. —
Arnold, John — M-G-M.
Archer, Fred —
August, Joe — Fox.
Bell, Chas. E. — Ray-Bell Films,
Benoit, Georges — Paris.
Binger, R. O. — M-G-M.
Boyle, John W.— R-K-O.
Brown, Jas. S., Jr. — Cal. Studio.
Carter, Claude C. — Australia.
Chancellor, Philip M.
Clark, Daniel B. — Fox.
Clarke, Chas. G. — Fox.
Cotner, Frank M. —
Cowling, H. T. — Eastman Ko-
dak Co., Rochester, N. Y.
Davis, Chas. J. — Fox Movie-
DeVinna, Clyde — M-G-M.
DeVol, Norman- — R-K-O.
Dored, John — Paramount News,
Dubray, Jos. A. — Bell &
Dupar, E. B. — Warners’ Vita-
Dupont, Max — Vitacolor.
Dyer, Edwin L. — M. P. A.
Studios, New Orleans.
Dyer, Elmer G. — Caddo.
Edeson, Arthur — Fox.
Fetters, C. Curtis — Fox.
Fildew, William —
Fisher, Ross G. — Multicolor.
Flora, Rol la- — -Fox.
Folsey, Geo. J., Jr.— New York.
Gaudio, Gaetano — Warner Bros.
Gilks, Alfred — Technicolor.
Good, Frank B. — Warner Bros.
Gray, King D. — Thunder Bay
Greenhalgh, Jack — -F-B-O.
Guissart, Rene — Elstree Studios,
Haller, Ernest — First National.
Herbert, Chas. W. — Fox Movie-
tone, New York.
Hilburn, Percy — M-G-M.
Horne, Pliny —
Hyer, Wm. C. — Educational.
Jackman, Dr. Floyd, 1st Nat.
Bank Bldg., Hollywood.
Jackman, Fred — Technical
Director, Warner Bros.
June, Ray — United Artists.
Kershner. Glenn — 1st National.
Keyes, Donald B. — United
Koenekamp, H. F. — Warner
Kurrle, Robt. E. — Tec-Art.
Lang, Chas. B. — Paramount.
Lindon, Curly- — Paramount.
Lockwood, J. R. —
Lundin, Walter — Harold Lloyd,
MacWilliams, Glen — Fox.
Marsh, Oliver — M-G-M.
Marta, Jack A. — Fox.
McDonell, Claude— London,
Miller, Arthur — Pathe.
Milner, Victor- — Paramount.
Mohr, Hal — Universal.
Morgan, Ira H. — M-G-M.
Nogle, George G. — M-G-M.
O’Connell, L. Wm. — Fox.
Pahle, Ted — Pathe, New York.
Palmer, Ernest — Fox.
Parrish, Fred — Colorado
Perry, Harry — Caddo Prod.
Perry, Paul P. — United Artists.
Polito, Sol — First National.
Pomeroy, Roy —
Powers, Len —
Rees, Wm. A. — Warner Bros.
Ries, Park J. —
Ritchie, Eugene Robt. —
Roos, Len H. — Len H. Roos.
Rose, Jackson J. —
Rosher, Chas. — M-G-M.
Schneiderman, Geo. — Fox
Schoenbaum, Chas. — Techni-
Scott, Homer A. —
Seitz, John F. — First National.
Sharp, Henry — United Artists,
Shearer, Douglas G. — M-G-M.
Sintzenich, Harold — Eastman
Kodak Co., Bombay.
Snyder, Edward J. — Metro-
Stengler, Mack — Sennett
Stevens, George — Hal Roach.
Struss, Karl — United Artists.
Stull, Wm. —
Tappenbeck, Hatto — Fox.
Tolhurst, Louis H. — M-G-M.
Van Buren, Ned — Eastman
Kodak Co., Hollywood.
Van Enger, Chas. J. — Fox.
Van Rossem, Walter J. —
Van Trees, James —
Varges, Ariel — Fox Hearst
Corp., Tokyo, Japan.
Wagner, Sidney C. — Fox.
Walker, Joseph — Columbia.
Walker, Vernon L. — Warner
Warrenton, Gilbert — Universal.
Wenstrom, Harold —
Westerberg, Fred — United
Whitman, Phil H. —
Wilky, L. Guy —
Williams, Frank D. —
Wrigley, Dewey — Metropolitan.
Wyckoff, Alvin — Multicolor.
Zucker, Frank C. — Photo-
phone, New York.
all the qualities you want
LOOK over this list: — (1) true color
balance; (2) unique fineness of grain;
(3) unsurpassed latitude; (4) ample
speed; (5) ability to give splendid
shadow detail. Add these characteris-
tics: (1) a tough, wear-resisting base;
(2) unfailing roll-to-roll uniformity....
Then you have all the qualities you
want in your negative film. You can
get the full combination only in East-
man Panchromatic Negative, Type 2.
EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY
ROCHESTER, NEW YORK
J. E. Brulatour, Inc., Distributors
3 LEW l